Difference between revisions of "United States"

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* Team USA won the 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup beating the Netherlands 2-0 in the final.
 
* American scientists have identified bones of the largest flying bird ever found, Pelagornis sandersi, - an ancient soaring seabird with an estimated wingspan of 20 to 24 feet. The finding was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on 7 July 2014.<ref>http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/07/02/1320297111</ref>
 
* American scientists have identified bones of the largest flying bird ever found, Pelagornis sandersi, - an ancient soaring seabird with an estimated wingspan of 20 to 24 feet. The finding was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on 7 July 2014.<ref>http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/07/02/1320297111</ref>
 
* Tennis diva Serena Williams won her fifth Wimbledon Singles title on 7 July 2012 with her 6-1 5-7 6-2 victory over Agnieszka Radwanska of Poland.<ref>http://www.wimbledon.com/en_GB/news/articles/2012-07-07/201207071341671882794.html</ref>
 
* Tennis diva Serena Williams won her fifth Wimbledon Singles title on 7 July 2012 with her 6-1 5-7 6-2 victory over Agnieszka Radwanska of Poland.<ref>http://www.wimbledon.com/en_GB/news/articles/2012-07-07/201207071341671882794.html</ref>

Revision as of 00:03, 10 July 2019

United States of America
Flag
United States LF.gif
Location  North America
Capital  Washington, D.C.
Area  9,826,675 sq km
Population  329,256,465
"A child doesn't know what fire is until it burns him"
(Proverb/Quote of the Week)

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United States Map.gif


January

January 1


  • A NASA spacecraft flew past the most distant world ever studied by humankind, Ultima Thule, 6.4 billion km away, on 1 January 2019.[1]

January 2


  • American scientists have found for the first time that the building blocks of a protein, called amino acids, can be assembled by another protein and without blueprints – DNA and an intermediate template called messenger RNA (mRNA). Their study was published in the journal Science on 2 January 2015.[2]

January 3


  • Researchers at Northwestern University have developed a new design for organic solar cells that could lead to more efficient, less expensive solar power. The research study was published on 3 January 2013 in Scientific Reports of journal Nature.[3]
  • A team of American and Chinese scientists revealed that a 2-billion-year-old Martian rock recovered in the Sahara desert contains water. The research findings were published on 3 January 2013 in the journal Science.

January 4


  • American researchers and a global team of astronomers have uncovered the cosmological source of a sporadically repeating milliseconds-long “fast radio burst.” Once thinking these bursts had emanated from within the Milky Way galaxy, or from cosmic neighbours, the astronomers now confirm that they are long-distance flashes from across the universe – more than 3 billion light-years away, according to a new report published on 4 January 2017 in the journal Nature.[4]

January 5


January 6


January 7


  • Abby Wambach of the United States won the FIFA Women's World Player of the Year award on 7 January 2013, the first time in ten years that an American has won the award.
  • Transatlantic telephone service is established in different phases in early 1900s. On January 7, 1927 first transatlantic commercial telephone service began between New York and London.[5]

January 8


  • Teams from Stanford University and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have worked together to produce the world’s fastest thin-film organic transistors, proving that this experimental technology has the potential to achieve the performance needed for high-resolution television screens and similar electronic devices. Their study was published on 8 January 2014 in the journal Nature Communications.[6]

January 9


  • Carli Lloyd of the USA won the FIFA Best Women’s Player of the Year award in Zurich on 9 January 2017.

January 10


January 11


  • American midfielder Carli Lloyd claimed her first-ever FIFA Women’s World Football Player of the Year award on 11 January 2016.
  • In a research, published on 11 January 2012, American scientists, led by Chris Austin from Louisiana State University, revealed they have discovered world's smallest frog in Papua New Guinea.

January 12


January 13


January 14


  • American space transport services company SpaceX launched a Falcon 9 rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on 14 January 2017 to place 10 satellites into orbit.
  • Two US climbers, Tommy Caldwell and Kevin Jorgeson, on 14 January 2015 became the first climbers to free climb the El Capitan cliff in Yosemite National Park in the United States, the world's largest granite monolith.
  • American scientists found chimpanzees possess a sense of fairness that has previously been attributed as uniquely human. The research findings were published on 14 January 2013 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • American poet Sharon Olds won the prestigious TS Eliot Prize for her collection Stag's Leap on 14 January 2013. Sharon became the first female American poet to win the TS Eliot Prize.

January 15


January 16


January 17


January 18


  • Researchers from the United States and Brazil have developed a molecule named SAMβA that halts the progression of heart failure and improves the heart's capacity to pump blood, as published in Nature Communications on 18 January 2019.[7]
  • Researchers at the Stanford University in the USA have discovered the brain cells that make pain unpleasant, according to their research published in the journal Science on 18 January 2019.[8]
  • American skier Lindsey Vonn clinched World Cup victory number 62 on 18 January 2015, equaling the all-time record which has stood for 35 years.

January 19


  • American Lindsey Vonn became the most successful female in Alpine skiing World Cup history after winning a Super-G on 19 January 2015. It was her 63rd World Cup victory, one more than Austrian Annemarie Moser-Proell's record made between 1970 and 1980.
  • Astronomers from the United States and Germany have captured first ever image of Cosmic Web that holds galaxies together. The research results from the 10-metre Keck telescope in Hawaii were reported in the journal Nature on 19 January 2014.[9]

January 20


  • Scientists at the University of Rochester, USA have used lasers to transform metals into extremely water repellent or super-hydrophobic. The metal, revealed on 20 January 2015, could be used for everything from preventing ice from developing on airplane wings to creating self-cleaning toilets.[10]

January 21


January 22


January 23


  • A team of researchers from the United States, Sweden and Norway has found a genetic switch allowed dogs to adapt to a starch-rich diet and evolve from meat-munching wolves into Man's leftover-loving best friend. The research findings, comparison of the genetic code of the domestic dog to that of its wolf cousins, were published on 23 January 2013 in the journal Nature.[11]

January 24


January 25


  • Curtis Cooper, professor of computer science at the University of Central Missouri, made the most recent discovery of the world’s largest known prime number on 25 January 2013, according to information released by the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Number Search.
  • American scientists Dr. Janet Rowley, Dr. Brian Druker and Dr. Nicholas Lydon were announced as the winners of the 2012 Japan Prize, one of the world's most prestigious awards in science and technology, on 25 January 2012 for the development of a new therapeutic drug targeting cancer-specific molecules.[12]
  • Midori, Violinist and Founder of Midori Foundation, USA, which runs programmes to teach music to inner city youth in New York, was awarded the World Economic Forum's Crystal Award on 25 January 2012 at the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Forum in Davos, Switzerland. The Award is given each year to successful artists who have used their art to 'improve the state of the world', according to the Forum.
  • American pioneer female journalist Nellie Bly completed her around-the-world journey in 72 days on January 25, 1890 in emulation of the main character Phileas Fogg from Jules Verne's novel Around the World in Eighty Days.

January 26


  • American scientists have succeeded in squeezing hydrogen so intensely that it has turned into a metal, creating an entirely new material that might be used as a highly efficient electricity conductor at room temperatures. Their discovery was reported in the journal Science on 26 January 2017.[13]

January 27


  • A team of students from the United States, Team Lifelens, won one of the four inaugural Imagine Cup grants from Microsoft worth $3 million on 27 January 2012 for their project Lifelens. Lifelens is an innovative point-of-care tool to diagnose malaria using an augmented Windows Phone application.

January 28


  • America's top diplomat, Hilary Clinton, has pledged to allow free access for Arab speaking students to high quality educational resources at an announcement ceremony on 28 January 2013. It is hoped that the initiative, known as the Open Book Project, will help to lower geographic, economic, and even gender-based barriers to learning.

January 29


  • In a scientific first, American neuroengineers at Columbia University have created a system that translates thought or brain signals into intelligible, recognizable speech, according to their research published on 29 January 2019 in Scientific Reports.[14]
  • American and Egyptian scientists have discovered a new species school-bus-length, long-necked plant-eater dinosaur, named Mansourasaurus shahinae, in Egypt. Their discovery was published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution on 29 January 2018.[15]
  • Researchers at Amherst College, USA and Aalto University, Finland have created and photographed synthetic magnetic monopoles under laboratory conditions. They described their breakthrough to simulate Magnet with single pole in Nature journal on 29 January 2014.[16]
  • Researchers in the USA and Japan have discovered a simple, cheaper, faster and more efficient way to make embryo-like stem cells by exposing blood cells briefly to dilute acid. The technique demonstrated so far only in mice, published in the journal Nature on 29 January 2014, could transform the ability of scientists to develop personalised medicine where a patient’s own healthy skin or blood cells can be used to repair damaged tissues, such as heart disease or brain injury.[17]

January 30


  • Scientists at UCLA and Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science have discovered a possible method by which cancer cells and dying cells communicate with nearby normal nerve cells without being physically connected to them. Their research findings were published on 30 January 2013 in the American Journal of Translational Research.

January 31


  • American space agency NASA successfully launched its Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite atop a United Launch Alliance Delta 2 rocket on 31 January 2015.
  • Serena Williams won her sixth Australian Open singles tennis crown, beating Russian Maria Sharapova for her 19th Grand Slam title with a 6-3 7-6(5) victory on 31 January 2015.[18]


February

February 1


  • Scientist from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore have figured out how owls can almost fully rotate their heads - by as much as 270 degrees in either direction without damaging the delicate blood vessels in their necks and heads, and without cutting off blood supply to their brains. The team's findings were published on 1 February 2013 in the journal Science.

February 2


  • An international team of scientists, including researchers from the USA, has discovered the greatest absence of evolution ever reported — a type of deep-sea microorganism or sulfur bacteria that appears not to have evolved over more than 2 billion years. Their findings were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on 2 February 2015.[19]
  • Researchers from the Harvard University have found a way to generate snapshots of dozens of different biomolecules within a single human cell. Their study, published on 2 February 2014 in the journal Nature Methods, will help scientists better understand the processes that take place within a cell and pave the way for better ways to diagnose and monitor diseases.[20]

February 3


  • American and Chinese scientists have identified a Jurassic age insect, Oregramma illecebrosa, whose behavior and appearance closely mimic a butterfly - but whose emergence on Earth predates the butterfly by about 40 million years. The discovery was published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B on 3 February 2016.[21]
  • Eileen Collins, an American astronaut, was the first female pilot of a Space Shuttle in the world. On February 3, 1995 Collins became the first woman to pilot a Space Shuttle in a mission, named STS-63 Discovery, a joint Russian-American Space Program.[22]

February 4


  • The third Winter Olympic Games were held in Lake Placid, United States from February 4 to 15, 1932. These Winter Games were the first to be held in North America.

February 5


February 6


  • American researchers have discovered six new species of catfish from the Amazon and Orinoco River basin. The new catfish are all members of the genus Ancistrus, also known as bristlenose catfish, as revealed on 6 February 2019.
  • American space agency SpaceX on 6 February 2018 launched the world's most powerful rocket Falcon Heavy for the first time. It boasts 27 engines, more than any other working rocket has ever used, which together create a combined 5 million pounds of thrust at liftoff.
  • American scientists along with an international team have identified brain chemicals that allow seals to sleep with half of their brain at a time, according to a study published on 6 February 2013 in the Journal of Neuroscience. The discovery may help millions — including an estimated 40 percent of North Americans — who suffer from insomnia or other sleep disorders.[23]

February 7


February 8


  • The 2002 Winter Olympic Games were held in Salt Lake City, USA from 8 to 24 February 2002.[24]
  • The first credit card charge was made by Frank McNamara, Ralph Schneider and Matty Simmons founder of Diners Club International, the first independent credit card company in the world, on 8th February 1950.[25]

February 9


  • Researchers from the USA and China have found that the Earth’s inner core has an inner core of its own, with crystals aligned in a different direction. The findings are reported in the journal Nature Geoscience on 9 February 2015.[26]

February 10


  • Glenn Miller, an American musician, and his Orchestra record Chattanooga Choo Choo became the first gold record in history for sales of 1,200,000 copies on February 10, 1942.[27]

February 11


  • For the first time, scientists from the USA and their international colleagues have observed ripples in the fabric of spacetime called gravitational waves, arriving at the earth from a cataclysmic event in the distant universe, as published on 11 February 2016. This confirms a major prediction of Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity and opens an unprecedented new window onto the cosmos.[28]
  • American Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite was successfully launched on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket on 11 February 2015. DSCOVR will be used to observe and provide advanced warning of extreme emissions from the sun which can affect power grids, communications systems, and satellites close to Earth.[29]
  • The United States on 11 February 2014 banned the commercial trade of elephant ivory in the country as part of a new drive to help African countries stem the rising threat to wildlife from poachers.[30]
  • The United States successfully launched an Earth observation satellite, Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), aboard an Atlas V rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on 11 February 2013.[31]

February 12


  • US researchers have effectively given laboratory rats a "sixth sense" using an implant in their brains. An experimental device allowed the rats to "touch" infrared light - which is normally invisible to them. Their research findings were published on 12 February 2013 in Nature Communications journal.[32]

February 13


  • American scientists on 13 February 2019 announced the discovery of fossils of a dinosaur in Tanzania called Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia that measured roughly 26 feet (8 meters) long, weighed about one ton, lived between 110 and 100 million years ago and was an early and comparatively small member of the group called titanosaurs.[33]
  • The 1980 Winter Olympic Games were held in Lake Placid, New York from February 13 to 24. To guarantee that all events took place in the best possible conditions, artificial snow was used for the first time at the Olympic Games.[34]

February 14


  • American photojournalist John Stanmeyer won the first prize in the 2014 World Press Photo awards for his image of African migrants near Djibouti city.[35]

February 15


  • On 15 February 2012 a team of American and German researchers announced they have discovered the world's tiniest chameleon, a distinctive lizard, - small enough to fit on a matchstick - on an offshore Madagascan island.

February 16


  • The 17-year-old American skier Mikaela Shiffrin became the youngest women's slalom world champion in 39 years on 16 February 2013.

February 17


February 18


  • A new species of bright red Ruby Seadragon (Phyllopteryx dewysea) has been discovered off the coast of Western Australia by the American and Australian researchers. It is only the third species of seadragon ever recorded in the world and reported on 18 February 2015 in the journal Royal Society Open Science.[36]
  • United States hosted the 1960 Winter Olympic Games from February 18 to February 28, 1960 in Squaw Valley, California. The Games saw the introduction of the “Instant Replay”.[37]

February 19


  • American space transport services company SpaceX on 19 February 2017 successfully launched a Falcon 9 rocket with around 2,500 kilograms of supplies for the International Space Station, from the exact spot at NASA where astronauts embarked on the lunar landings nearly a half-century ago.

February 20


  • American scientist have engineered artificial human ears in laboratory that look and act like the real thing by using 3D computer printers and living-cell gels, giving hope to patients missing all or part of their ears. Their research findings were published on 20 February 2013 in the journal Public Library of Science One.[38]

February 21


  • Mikaela Shiffrin of the USA won Gold in Women's Slalom at the 2014 Sochi Olympic Winter Games and became the discipline’s youngest ever Olympic champion at the age of 18 years and 345 days.[39]

February 22


February 23


  • Scientists from the USA, Australia and Canada using age-determining techniques have shown that a tiny zircon crystal found on a sheep ranch in Western Australia is the oldest known piece of our planet, dating to 4.4 billion years ago. Their study was reported on 23 February 2014 in the journal Nature Geoscience.[40]

February 24


  • A team American surgeons performed the nation’s first uterus transplant during a nine-hour surgery at the Cleveland Clinic on 24 February 2016.[41]
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the first human-like robot, Robonaut 2 or R2, to space to become a permanent resident of the International Space Station on February 24, 2011. R2 was launched on space shuttle Discovery as part of the STS-133 mission. It was also the final planned flight of Discovery.[42]

February 25


  • An international team of astronomers led by researchers from the University of Arizona, USA and Peking University in China have identified a mammoth black hole weighing as much as 12 billion suns. It was named SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 and was discovered 12.8bn light years away from Earth, as described on 25 February 2015 in Nature.[43]
  • Muhammad Ali, also known as The Greatest and The Champ, one of the greatest heavyweight championship boxers of all time won his first World Heavyweight Championship on February 25, 1964. In total Ali was three-time World Heavyweight Champion.[44]

February 26


  • Scientists from the USA, Brazil and Chile have unearthed a mass graveyard of fossilized whales in Chile’s Atacama Desert. Their study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B on 26 February 2014 suggests toxins generated by algae blooms most likely poisoned the animals millions of years ago.[45]
  • LeAnn Rimes, the youngest person to ever win a Grammy Award. She won the awards in two categories, Best New Artist and Best Female Country Vocal Performance, in 1997.[46]

February 27


February 28


  • A tiny signal, dating back to the birth of the first stars in our universe, has been detected for the first time by American astronomers. Their findings were published in the journal Nature on 28 February 2018.[47]

February 29



March

March 1


March 2


  • SpaceX launched Crew Dragon – a commercial spaceship designed for NASA astronauts – into orbit for the first time on 2 March 2019, marking the first major step towards US ambitions to resume sending astronauts into space on its own spacecraft from American soil.

March 3


  • American doctors announced on 3 March 2013 that a baby had been cured of an H.I.V. infection for the first time, a startling development that could change how infected newborns are treated and sharply reduce the number of children living with the virus that causes AIDS. If the child remains healthy, it would mark only the world's second reported H.I.V. infection cure.[48]

March 4


  • California based space transport company SpaceX successfully launched a communications satellite SES-9 to a distant orbit on 4 January 2016.
  • American scientists have unearthed a 2.8 million year-old fossilized jawbone in Ethiopia. The unearthed jawbone, reported on 4 March 2015 in the journal Science, is believed to belong to one of the very first humans.[49]

March 5


  • On 5 March 2012, scientists at Boston Dynamics, a design firm financed by the Pentagon, revealed they have broken a 23-year-old speed record for legged robots. Their new robot the speedy Cheetah can run at 18mph on a treadmill breaking the previous record of 13.1mph.[50]

March 6


March 7


  • American scientists and a team of international researchers have shown that the human hippocampus – a region in the brain essential for learning and memory - stop producing nerve cells around the age of 13. Their findings were detailed in the journal Nature on 7 March 2018.[51]

March 8


March 9


March 10


March 11


  • American researchers have devised and demonstrated a low-cost way to bend and control light at whatever degree they choose. The discovery, was reported on 11 March 2015 in the journal Optics Express, will lead to exponentially faster data transmission for future computers using light beams, instead of electrical signals.[52]

March 12


  • American alpine ski racer Lindsey Vonn clinched the 2010 Alpine Skiing World Cup overall title on March 12, 2010. It was her third consecutive overall World Cup title.

March 13


March 14


March 15


  • The United States won gold in the final of the ice sledge hockey at the 2014 Sochi Winter Paralympics defeating Russia 1-0.[53]
  • The free trade agreement between South Korea and the United States came into effect on 15 March 2012 in order to boost exports and strengthen the decades-old alliance. It went into force as the biggest such agreement for Washington in 16 years and came as Seoul actively tried to open its markets to other trading partners.[54]
  • The first commercial Internet domain name (first .com domain in the world), Symbolics.com, was registered on March 15, 1985. Later in 2009 it was sold and currently available under different name. The domain was registered by Symbolics Inc., a computer systems firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[55]

March 16


March 17


  • American astronomers have discovered what is believed to be the first direct evidence of the astonishing expansion of the universe in the instant following the Big Bang -- the scientific explanation for the birth of the universe some 14 billion years ago. The findings were reported on 17 March 2014 at a press conference at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[56]
  • American mountaineer Carol Masheter became the oldest woman in the world to climb the Seven Summits, the highest peak on each of the seven continents, at the age of 65. She reached the summit of Australia's Mount Kosciuszko on 17 March 2012 to complete the mammoth undertaking.[57]

March 18


  • American mathematician Karen Uhlenbeck became the first woman to ever win the prestigious Abel Prize for Mathematics on 19 March 2019 for her work on partial differential equations.
  • A Delta IV rocket was successfully launched on 18 March 2017 to deliver U.S. military communications satellite Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS-9) into orbit, the ninth member of a planned network of 10 satellites.

March 19


  • A newly discovered crocodilian ancestor, Carnufex carolinensis or the Carolina Butcher, walked on its hind legs and likely preyed upon smaller inhabitants 231 million years ago in North Carolina, according to a research published by American researchers on 19 March 2015 in journal Scientific Reports.[58]
  • The Burmese python has a built-in compass that allows it to slither home even if released kilometers away, according an American research published on 19 march 2014 in the Royal Society journal Biology Letters.[59]

March 20


  • American researchers have identified two proteins, SIX1 and SIX2, that diminish a potentially life-threatening immune response to chronic infection, as published in Nature on 20 March 2019.[60]
  • Doctors at the University of Maryland Medical Center performed the most extensive full face transplant to date, replacing the upper and lower jaw bones, teeth, and a portion of the tongue of a 37-year-old man. The operation took place over 36 hours on March 19 and 20, 2012 and involved more than 200 medical professionals.

March 21


  • More than 200 million years ago, volcanoes decimated a large numbers of marine and terrestrial species — including large sea reptiles and mollusks - which opened the door for the dinosaurs to take over millions of years later, according to a study published by scientists from the USA, Morocco and Canada on 21 March 2013 in the journal Science.

March 22


March 23


March 24


March 25


March 26


  • Biologists from the United States, Germany and Madagascar on 26 March 2013 unveiled two new species of mouse lemur -- tiny, big-eyed animals that inhabit the forests of Madagascar. Scientists compared DNA, body mass and length, skull and tooth size and coat coloring to declare Microcebus marohita and Microcebus tanosi to be separate species.[61]

March 27


  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) experts Yann LeCun of the USA and Geoffrey Hinton and Yoshua Bengio of Canada won the 2019 Turing Award, sometimes referred to as "the Nobel Prize of computing”, for conceptual and engineering breakthroughs that have made deep neural networks a critical component of computing.
  • American author Jacqueline Woodson won the 2018 The Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award, the world's largest prize for children's writing.
  • American and Canadian researchers have discovered 508-million-year-old fossils of lobster-like marine creature with two pairs of eyes at a Marble Canyon site. Their findings were published on 27 March 2015 in the journal Palaeontology.[62]

March 28


  • Researchers in the United States have genetically modified mosquitoes to make humans less attractive to them - a discovery that could dramatically reduce the spread of mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue, malaria and Zika fever. Their findings was published on 28 March 2019 in Current Biology.[63]

March 29


  • Professor Bonnie Bassler from Princeton University, USA was recognized for understanding the chemical communication between bacteria and opening new doors for treating infections at the 14th Annual L’ORÉAL-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science on 29 March 2012.[64]

March 30


  • American private spaceflight company SpaceX launched 10 communications satellites into orbit for Iridium Communications on a used Falcon 9 rocket from California on 30 March 2018.
  • Doctors at the Johns Hopkins University in the USA have become the first in the world to execute an HIV-positive to HIV-positive liver transplant and the first in the United States to do an HIV-positive to HIV-positive kidney transplant, as announced on 30 March 2016.[65]

March 31



April

April 1


  • American and Ecuadorian researchers have discovered a new frog species, called Pristimantis mutabilis, in Ecuador that has the ability to change skin texture in minutes. Their findings were published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society on 1 April 2015.[66]
  • According to American researchers at University of California (UC), Davis, biting flies, including horseflies and tsetse flies, are the evolutionary driver for zebra's stripes. Their study was published on 1 April 2014 in the journal Nature Communications.[67]

April 2


April 3


  • By linking the brains of a human and a rat, scientists from the USA and South Korea have helped a man wiggle a rat's tail using only the man's thoughts. Their findings were published on 3 April 2013 in the journal PLOS ONE and are the first case of a brain-to-brain interface between species, and the first example of a noninvasive brain-to-brain interface.[68]

April 4


  • American astrophysicists have discovered a dozen black holes gathered around Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, according to a study publish in the journal Nature on 4 April 2018.[69]
  • American and Italian scientists have uncovered a vast ocean beneath the icy surface of Saturn's little moon Enceladus. They made the discovery using Cassini, a NASA-European spacecraft still exploring Saturn and its rings 17 years after its launch from Cape Canaveral. Their findings were announced on 4 April 2014 in the journal Science.[70]

April 5


  • Eleven Madison Park in New York was named The World’s Best Restaurant 2017 and became the first US establishment to win the top spot since 2004.[71]

April 6


April 7


April 8


April 9


  • Using plastic fibers and human cells, doctors have built and implanted a windpipe in a 2 ½-year-old girl who was born without one and became the youngest person ever to receive a bioengineered organ. The surgery, which took place on 9 April 2013 at Children’s Hospital of Illinoi, is only the sixth of its kind and the first to be performed in the United States.

April 10


  • Scientists at Stanford University have created a way to make a human brain transparent, allowing them to study the organ's intricate wiring without having to slice it up. Their study was published in the journal Nature on 10 April 2013.[72]

April 11


  • Hilton Kelley from the United States won the 2011 Goldman Environmental Prize, considered as the Nobel Prize for grassroots environmentalism, on 11 April 2011. Hilton was awarded for his battle to establish environmental justice for communities living in the shadow of polluting industries.

April 12


  • American professional golfer Jordan Spieth won the 2015 Masters Tournament in Augusta. The 21-year-old became the second-youngest player to win at Augusta, behind only legendary Tiger Woods' 1997 effort, and just the fifth man to lead the prestigious tournament from start to finish.

April 13


  • American aerospace company Stratolaunch Systems Corporation on 13 April 2019 successfully completed the first flight of the world’s largest all-composite aircraft, the Stratolaunch.[73]
  • Doctors at the Driscoll Children's Hospital, Texas, USA have successfully separated two 10-month-old sisters born conjoined below the waist, as announced on 13 April 2016.[74]
  • American golfer Bubba Watson won the US Masters for the second time in three years, storming to a three-stroke Masters win at Augusta National on 13 April 2014.

April 14


  • American scientists have grown a kidney in the laboratory and shown that it produces urine when implanted into a rat, according to a study published on 14 April 2013 in the journal Nature Medicine. The work is an important step towards the longer-term goal of growing personalized replacement organs that could be transplanted into people with kidney failure.[75]

April 15


April 16


April 17


  • American aerospace company Northrop Grumman successfully launched its Antares rocket carrying supplies to the astronauts aboard the International Space Station on 17 April 2019.
  • Destiny Watford of the United States won the 2016 Goldman Environmental Prize, considered as the Nobel Prize for grassroots environmentalism, on 17 April 2016.In a community whose environmental rights had long been sidelined to make room for heavy industry, Destiny inspired residents of a Baltimore neighborhood to defeat plans to build the nation’s largest incinerator less than a mile away from her high school.[76]
  • American geologists have uncovered a preglacial tundra landscape preserved for 2.7 million years far below the Greenland ice sheet. The study was published in the journal Science on 17 April 2014.[77]
  • For the first time, researchers from the USA and South Korea have cloned embryonic stem cells from adult cells, a breakthrough on the path towards the treatment of countless diseases. Their study was published on 17 April 2014 in the journal Cell Stem Cell.[78]
  • Scientists discovered a new shrimp-like species in a gypsum cave in southeastern New Mexico, only a few dozen miles from the famous caves at Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The Bureau of Land Management's cave specialist announced the discovery on 17 April 2012.
  • Dave MacLennan, President and Chief Operating Officer at Cargill, Inc., was announced as the winner of the prestigious 2012 Oslo Business for Peace Award for developing management systems and policies to ensure environmental compliance, prevent pollution and continually improve performance on criteria relevant to their business and operations.

April 18


  • Tennis star Serena Williams of the USA was named the Laureus World Sportswoman of the Year for the third time on 18 April 2016.
  • Team USA won gold at the 2015 ISU World Team Trophy championship in Figure Skating in Tokyo with 110 points beating Russia just by 1 point. It was their third ISU World Team Trophy title after 2009 and 2013.

April 19


  • American federal space agency NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) was launched on 19 April 2018 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket on the first-of-its-kind mission to find worlds beyond our solar system, including some that could support life.[79]
  • Al Gore, former Vice President of the United States, was awarded the prestigious Champions of the Earth Award by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on April 19, 2007. He was recognized for his contributions in educating the world communities on the concerns posed by rising greenhouse gas emissions.

April 20


April 21


  • NASA commercial space partner Orbital Sciences Corporation on 21 April 2013 launched its Antares rocket from the new Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport Pad-0A in Virginia. It was the first test flight of privately owned Antares that paves the way for eventual cargo flights to the International Space Station for NASA.[80]

April 22


  • First Earth Day was celebrated which inspired national legislation, such as, the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. Earth Day is designed to promote ecology, encourage respect for life on earth, and highlight concern over pollution of the soil, air, and water. [Year 1970].[81]
  • Biomimicry, a study of nature and relating that to solve human problems, specialist Janine Benyus from the United States (US) received the Champions of the Earth award by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on April 22, 2009. She was rewarded in the Science and Innovation category because of her pioneering role in biomimicry.
  • Environmental activist Ron Gonen’s was awarded the Champions of the Earth award by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on April 22, 2009 in Entrepreneurial Vision category. Gonen’s company, RecycleBank, has helped increase recycling to over 90 per cent in many communities across the United States through a reward system.
  • Timothy E. Wirth, former United States (US) Senator, was awarded the prestigious Champions of the Earth Award by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on 22 April, 2008. Wirth was awarded for his efforts in advocating environmental issues in the US.

April 23


  • American John Moore's pictures of the Ebola epidemic in Liberia won the 2015 L'Iris D'Or Sony World Photography Award.
  • Scientists from the USA, Australia and Germany discovered that Antarctic minke whales are responsible for the bizarre quacking sound - nicknamed "the bio-duck" - appears in the winter and spring in the Southern Ocean. Their study was published on 23 April 2014 in the Royal Society journal Biology Letters.[82]

April 24


  • A team of scientists from the University of California, USA has created a system that translates brain waves into computer-generated speech. The team's findings were published in the journal Nature on 24 April 2019.[83]
  • American astronaut Peggy Whitson on 24 April 2017 set new record for most days in space by a US astronaut beating the record previously set by Jeff Williams, who had a total of 534 days in space.[84]

April 25


  • American scientists have developed an artificial womb that can sustain premature lambs, and such technology could soon be useful to save prematurely born human babies. Their research was detailed in Nature Communications on 25 April 2017.[85]
  • American scientists have come up with a procedure for male fertility home test, the Albuquerque Journal reported on 25 April 2014. The scientists have created a portable test kit for gauging a man's sperm quality that could be available to consumers as early as 2015.[86]

April 26


April 27


April 28


  • American Helen Slottje won the 2014 Goldman Environmental Prize for her work that helped ban fracking in over 170 towns and cities across New York.[87]

April 29


April 30



May

May 1


  • Researchers from the United States and their international colleagues have created a digital camera that mimics the eyes of fire ants. The curved cameras capture a wide field of view with nearly infinite depth perception. Their findings were published on 1 May 2013 in the journal Nature.[88]

May 2


  • American boxer Floyd Mayweather beat Filipino Manny Pacquiao in the 'fight of the century - the richest in history' on 2 May 2015 in Las Vegas to maintain his unbeaten record in 48 fights.

May 3


  • American researchers along with their international colleagues have discovered fossil remains of a new species of meat-eating dinosaur in the northwestern corner of China. The dinosaur, Aorun zhaoi, was only a few feet in length and lived during the Late Jurassic Period nearly 161 million years ago, according to a study published on 3 May 2013.
  • A black-and-white image by American photographer Anthony Suau was awarded as the World Press Photo of the Year 2008 on 3 May 2009. The picture shows an armed officer of the Cuyahoga County Sheriff's Department moving through a home in Cleveland, Ohio, following eviction as a result of mortgage foreclosure.[89]

May 4


May 5


  • The American space agency NASA on 5 May 2018 successfully launched its InSight spacecraft to Mars from the Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.[90]

May 6


  • SpaceX in the USA successfully landed its Falcon 9 rocket on ocean platform for second time on 6 May 2016 after launching it into space.
  • American film director Francis Ford Coppola was awarded the 2015 Princess of Asturias Award for Arts for his outstanding narration through movies.[91]

May 7


  • American scientists have created the first semi-synthetic micro-organism with a radically different genetic code from the rest of life on Earth. Their study, published in the journal Nature on 7 May 2014, one day could lead to new antibiotics, vaccines and other medical products not possible with today's bioscience.[92]

May 8


  • American singer Paul Simon and cellist Yo-Yo Ma are awarded the 2012 Polar Music Prize, a Swedish international music award, for their dedications to music.
  • Coca-Cola, one of the most popular soft-drinks in the world, was invented and served for the first time by Dr. John Stith Pemberton on May 8, 1886 in Georgia, United States. Dr. Pemberton worked as a pharmacist and lived in Columbus, United States for much of his life.

May 9


  • Researchers at the University of Illinois have developed a self-regenerating plastic that's capable of repairing large holes and cracks. The new material was described on 9 May 2014 in Science journal.[93]

May 10


  • A team of international scientists from the U.S., China, Australia and Japan has sequenced and annotated the genome of the "sacred lotus," which is believed to have a powerful genetic system that repairs genetic defects, and may hold secrets about aging successfully. The scientists sequenced more than 86 percent of the nearly 27,000 genes of the plant, Nelumbo nucifera, which is revered in China and elsewhere as a symbol of spiritual purity and longevity. The research was published on 10 May 2013 in the journal Genome Biology.[94]

May 11


May 12


  • In a study published on 12 May 2013 by American researchers and their international colleagues, it is discovered that Utricularia gibba, a carnivorous bladderwort plant, has the shortest known DNA sequence of any multicellular plant and that it lacks "junk DNA", sequences of code that do not encode proteins.[95]

May 13


  • American female professional tennis player Serena Williams won her first Mutua Madrid Open tennis tournament on 13 May 2012 beating Victoria Azarenka 6-1, 6-3 in the final.[96]

May 14


  • American biologists have successfully transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory. This research could lead to new ways to restore lost memories as detailed in the journal eNeuro on 14 May 2018.[97]
  • Elephant seals have surprisingly high levels of naturally produced carbon monoxide — a noxious gas that is deadly at high concentrations — in their blood, a study, published on 14 May 2014, by researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California finds. The researchers suggest it could protect the animals from injury when they dive to extreme depths in search of food.

May 15


  • American space transport company SpaceX successfully launched its heaviest geostationary orbital payload yet on 15 May 2017, a 6,100 kilogram Inmarsat-5 F4 communications satellite which is bigger than a double decker bus.
  • American researchers have discovered the world’s first warm-blooded fish – the opah, reported in the journal Science on 15 May 2015.[98]
  • In a study published on 15 May 2013 by American and Thai researchers, it is revealed that they have managed to use cloning technology to make human embryos and grow stem cells from them, marking a significant step that could lead to new treatments, such as, making new heart muscle, bone, brain tissue or any other type of cell in the body.[99]

May 16


  • A team of surgeons at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), USA have performed the nation’s first Penis transplant, as announced on 16 May 2016.[100]
  • American and Mexican researchers have rediscovered Clarión Nightsnake, a species of snake that had been lost for almost 80 years, on a remote Mexican island. Their discovery was reported on 16 May 2014 in the PLOS ONE scientific journal.[101]
  • Two people who are unable to move their limbs have been able to guide a robot arm to reach and grasp objects using only their brain activity, according to a research led by American scientists published on 16 May 2012 in the journal Nature.[102]

May 17


May 18


  • American aviator Jacqueline Cochran became the first woman to fly faster than the speed of sound. On May 18, 1953 she broke the sound barrier, traveling 625.5 miles per hour, in an F-86 Sabre and joined the previously male dominated "supersonic club".

May 19


  • An international team of astronomers from the USA, Chile and England have found evidence of ice and comets orbiting a nearby sun-like star named HD 181327, which could give a glimpse into how our own solar system developed, as revealed on 19 May 2016.[103]

May 20


  • A team of international scientists, including researchers from the USA, has unearthed the earliest stone tools ever found – dated at 3.3 million years old - in north-west Kenya. Their findings were reported in the journal Nature on 20 may 2015.[104]
  • Amelia Earhart from Kansas, United States is considered "the most celebrated of all women aviators". Earhart became the first female to cross the Atlantic Ocean in 1928 along with two more aviators. But it was on May 20-21, 1932 Earhart accomplished her goal of flying solo across the Atlantic Ocean.

May 21


  • American researchers Mark E. Davis Pasadena and Galen D. Stucky jointly, along with Spanish scientist Avelino Corma Canós, won the 2014 Spain's Prince of Asturias Award for Technical and Scientific Research.[105]

May 22


  • SpaceX, a California-based space transport company, successfully launched its Falcon 9 rocket carrying a Dragon spacecraft to orbit on 22 May 2012 in an exciting start to the mission that will make SpaceX the first commercial company in history to attempt to send a spacecraft to the International Space Station.

May 23


  • SpaceX on 23 May 2019 launched a rocket carrying the first 60 satellites of Starlink satellites, a planned satellite mega constellation that aims to provide internet from space to billions of unconnected people around the world.
  • JAVA an object-oriented computer programming language officially started its journey on May 23, 1995. On this day Java technology was officially announced in SunWorld with the aim to revolutionize the Web. JAVA was invented at Sun Microsystems, a California-based computer software and hardware company.[106]

May 24


  • American biochemical engineer Frances Arnold received the 2016 Millennium Technology Prize in recognition of her discoveries that launched the field of ‘directed evolution’, which mimics natural evolution to create new and better proteins in the laboratory. The €1m prize is awarded biennially and Arnold is the first female winner in its 12-year history.[107]
  • American film director Bennett Miller won the award for Best Director at the 2014 Cannes Film Festival for his film Foxcatcher.
  • Carl C. Magee, an American lawyer invented the parking meter in 1935. He patented his invention and the patent was issued on May 24, 1938 as patent number 2,118,318.
  • Samuel Morse, an American inventor, made the first public demonstration of his telegraph and sent the message “What hath God wrought?" from the Supreme Court Chamber in Washington, D.C. to the B&O Railroad Museum in Baltimore in 1844.
  • The children's nursery rhyme "Mary Had a Little Lamb" by Sarah Josepha Hale was first published by the Boston publishing firm Marsh, Capen & Lyon on May 24, 1830.

May 25


  • American biologist Joseph Altman was awarded the 2011 Prince of Asturias Award under the Technical and Scientific Research category on 25 May 2011 for providing solid proof of the regeneration of neurons in adult brains (neurogenesis) and for the discovery of what are known as mirror neurons.[108]

May 26


May 27


May 28


  • Five American scientists were announced the winners of the Hong Kong based Shaw Prize for their contributions in Astronomy, Life Science and Medicine and Mathematical Sciences on 28 May 2013.[109]

May 29


  • SpaceX, a California based space transport company, on 29 May 2014 unveiled a re-useable spacecraft, seven-seater Dragon V2, which it says will be able to take-off and land anywhere on Earth.
  • Marcus E. Raichle of the USA, Brenda Milner of Canada and John O’Keefe of England jointly won the prestigious 2014 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience for the discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition.
  • Researchers have for the first time unraveled the complex structure of the inner protein shell of HIV and worked out exactly how all the components of the shell or 'capsid' fit together at the atomic level. The findings by the American researchers, opened the way for new types of drug, were published on 29 May 2013 in the journal Nature.[110]
  • Three new crew members, including American Karen Nyberg, arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) on 29 May 2013 in just under six hours aboard the Russian Soyuz TMA-09M spacecraft after launching from Kazakhstan. The crew members are expected to remain on the space station for the next six months and perform more than 100 science experiments.

May 30


  • American writer Madeleine Miller was awarded the prestigious Orange Prize for fiction, the prize that celebrates excellence, originality and accessibility in women's writing from throughout the world, for her debut novel The Song of Achilles on 30 May 2012 at the prize ceremony at London's Royal Festival Hall.

May 31



June

June 1


June 2


  • Doctors at Stony Brook Children’s Hospital in the USA reconstructed a Kenyan child’s face after flesh-eating bacteria called Noma left her face destroyed and made it difficult for her to speak, eat and even breathe, as announced on 2 June 2014.

June 3


  • SpaceX in the USA launched its first recycled cargo ship to the International Space Station on 3 June 2017, yet another milestone in its bid to drive down flight costs.

June 4


  • A research group led by scientists from the Washington State University, USA has found a way to turn daily plastic waste products into jet fuel, as revealed on 4 June 2019.[111]
  • The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center successfully transplanted, for the first time in the world, a scalp and skull while performing kidney and pancreas transplants in a 15-hour operation, as announced on 4 June 2015.

June 5


June 6


  • US scientists have successfully sequenced the genome of a baby in the womb, marking a significant breakthrough in genetic medicine. The research was reported in the 6 June 2012 issue of Science Translational Medicine, a journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

June 7


  • The Boeing 777 is the first aircraft produced through computer-aided design. Its first commercial flight took place on June 7, 1995 from London Heathrow Airport to Dulles International Airport near Washington, D.C.[112]

June 8


  • American archaeologists have discovered a huge monument buried under the sands at the Petra World Heritage site in southern Jordan. The monument is roughly as long as an Olympic-size swimming pool and twice as wide and sits only about half a mile (800 meters) south of the center of the ancient city, as first reported on 8 June 2016.
  • Serena Williams won a second French Open Tennis title 11 years after her first with a convincing win, 6-4 6-4, over defending champion Maria Sharapova on 8 June 2013. It was Serena's 16th Grand Slam title.

June 9


June 10


June 11


  • American and Chinese researchers have identified a newly discovered 3-to-5-million-year-old Tibetan fox from the Himalayan Mountains, Vulpes qiuzhudingi, as the oldest close relative of the living Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus. Their findings were published on 11 June 2014 in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.[113]

June 12


  • American author Emily Ruskovich won the 2019 International DUBLIN Literary Award for her debut novel Idaho (Vintage).
  • The Fulbright Program for educational and cultural exchange, established by US Senator James William Fulbright in 1946, won the 2014 Spain's Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation.[114]

June 13


  • The United States, Mexico and Canada won the right to host the 2026 FIFA World Cup after securing greater number of votes from the FIFA member nations on 13 June 2018.

June 14


  • Scientists at the University of Alaska along with their international colleagues have shed new light on how diving mammals, such as the sperm whale, have evolved to survive for long periods underwater without breathing. The team identified a distinctive molecular signature of the oxygen-binding protein myoglobin in the sperm whale and other diving mammals, which allowed them to store enough oxygen to hold their breath for up to an hour. Their findings were published on 14 June 2013 in the journal Science.[115]
  • The United States Army was founded on June 14, 1775, when the Continental Congress authorized enlistment of riflemen to serve the United Colonies.

June 15


  • American and South Korean researchers have demonstrated — for the first time — a light-emitting graphene transistor that works in the same way as the filament in a light bulb, dubbed as the World's Thinnest Light Bulb. Their discovery was reported in Nature Nantechnology on 15 June 2015.[116]
  • American tightrope walker Nik Wallenda defied mist and wind to become the first man to walk across Niagara Falls on a high wire on 15 June 2012.[117]

June 16


June 17


  • American professional golfer Webb Simpson won the 2012 US Open golf championship, firing a final-round 68 for a one-stroke victory on 17 June 2012.

June 18


  • A new language that is only spoken by approximately 350 people has been discovered in the town of Lajamanu, Australia by University of Michigan linguist Carmel O’Shannessy. It is a mix of English and two other local dialects, called as Light Warlpiri in a paper published on 18 June 2013 in the journal Language.[118]

June 19


  • American immunologist James P. Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo were announced as the winners of the first Tang Prize in Biopharmaceutical Science on 19 June 2014 for their contributions to immunotherapy, specifically for their separate discoveries of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as immune inhibitory molecules, discoveries which have opened up new, revolutionary possibilities in the treatment of cancer.

June 20


June 21


June 22


  • American researchers at the Oregon Health & Science University have discovered a drug compound that stops cancer cells from spreading throughout the body. Their research was detailed in the journal Nature Communications on 22 June 2018.[119]
  • American and French scientists have discovered a bright, mysterious geologic object – where one never existed – on Cassini mission radar images of Ligeia Mare, the second-largest sea on Saturn’s moon Titan. The object, dubbed ‘magic island’, was reported on 22 June 2014 in the journal Nature Geoscience.[120]

June 23


June 24


June 25


  • A cow-size reptile with knobbly growths on its head roamed the central desert of Niger about 250 million years ago. American researchers and their international colleagues reported the claim in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology on 25 June 2013 based on their study of fossils discovered in Niger.[121]

June 26


  • Researchers at Oregon State University in the USA have developed an improved technique for using magnetic nanoclusters to kill hard-to-reach cancerous tumors, as revealed on 26 June 2019.
  • The Guttmacher Institute, an American research and policy organisation that advances sexual and reproductive health and rights in the United States and globally, received the 2018 United Nations Population.
  • Scientists from the USA and Namibia have discovered a new species of round-eared sengi or elephant shrew, named Macroscelides micus, in the deserts of Namibia. Discovery and identification of the new variety of the sengi was detailed on 26 June 2014 in the Journal of Mammalogy.

June 27


June 28


  • Researchers at Rice University in Houston, Texas have developed a paint that can store and deliver electrical power just like a battery. The research was published on 28 June 2012 in the journal Nature Scientific Reports which detailed a technique to break down each element of the traditional battery and incorporate it into a liquid that can be spray-painted in layers on virtually any surface.[122]

June 29


June 30


  • American and English researchers have found the first clear evidence that the thinning in the ozone layer above Antarctica is starting to heal. The scientists on 30 June 2015 revealed in the journal Science that in September 2015 the hole was around 4 million sq km smaller than it was in the year 2000.[123]


July

July 1


  • The third Summer Olympic Games were held in St. Louis, United States in 1904. The various competitions were spread out over four-and-a-half months from July 1 to November 23, 1904. The 1904 Olympic Games were the first at which gold, silver and bronze medals were awarded for first, second and third place.[124]

July 2


  • A team of researchers from the USA, Germany and Mongolia has discovered the oldest evidence of horse veterinary dentistry. Their study, based on the analysis of horse remains from an ancient Mongolian pastoral culture, was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on 2 July 2018.[125]
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) successfully launched its first spacecraft dedicated to studying atmospheric carbon dioxide on 2 July 2014. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite took off aboard a Delta 2 rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.[126]

July 3


July 4


  • A collaborative effort by cancer researchers from the USA, Japan and Austria has identified a new drug target in leukemia and creation of a candidate drug that hits the target. The newly identified target is a binding pocket on a protein called BRD9. The drug to bind at that pocket, called a bromodomain, is provisionally called BI-7273, as revealed on 4 July 2016 in Nature Chemical Biology.[127]
  • Independence Day of the United States. The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776.[128]

July 5


July 6


  • The United States of America won the Women's Football World Cup for the third time, beating reigning champions Japan 5-2 in the final in Vancouver on 6 July 2015.[129]

July 7


  • Team USA won the 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup beating the Netherlands 2-0 in the final.
  • American scientists have identified bones of the largest flying bird ever found, Pelagornis sandersi, - an ancient soaring seabird with an estimated wingspan of 20 to 24 feet. The finding was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on 7 July 2014.[130]
  • Tennis diva Serena Williams won her fifth Wimbledon Singles title on 7 July 2012 with her 6-1 5-7 6-2 victory over Agnieszka Radwanska of Poland.[131]

July 8


  • Researchers from the USA and South Africa have found evidence of a mass extinction in the rocks of the Great Karoo in South Africa that may have killed a good chunk of land animals some 260 million years ago. The scientists detailed their findings on 8 July 2015 in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.[132]
  • American Shawn Nichols Weatherly was crowned Miss Universe in 1980 at the age of 20.

July 9


  • Linda Bement of USA won the 1960 Miss Universe contest at the age of 18. Linda was the third beauty pageant from USA to win the title.

July 10


July 11


  • Serena Williams beat Spanish youngster Garbine Muguruza 6-4, 6-4 to claim her sixth Wimbledon ladies title and 21st Grand Slam title on 11 July 2015.
  • American astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope along with an international team of researchers have, for the first time, determined the true color of a planet outside our solar system. If seen up close this planet, known as HD 189733b, would be a deep cobalt blue, reminiscent of Earth’s color as seen from space. Their findings were published on 11 July 2013 in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.[133]

July 12


July 13


July 14


  • American scientists along with an international team of researchers have successfully sequenced the genomes of 201 microbes to find out more about the role these tiny, single-celled organisms play in our environment. This insight into the genetic code has also helped the team to draw up a more detailed version of the microbial family tree. Their findings were published on 14 July 2013 in the journal Nature.[134]

July 15


  • Scientists from the USA, China and South Africa have discovered largest four-winged dinosaur to date. The 125-million-year-old fossil of the feathered dinosaur, named Changyuraptor yangi, was unearthed in northeastern China and reported on 15 July 2014 in Nature Communications.[135]
  • Sylvia Louise Hitchcock of USA won the 1967 Miss Universe contest at the age of 21. The contest took place in Florida, USA on July 15, 1967.

July 16


  • American scientists and their international colleagues have located an interconnected series of meandering, iridescent white subsea pools in the Southern Aegean Sea containing high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), as reported on 16 July 2015 in the journal Scientific Reports. The pools, which get their distinctive color from opal particles, may hold answers to questions related to deep-sea carbon storage as well as provide a means of monitoring the volcano for future eruptions.[136]
  • The United States (U.S.) conducted its first nuclear test on July 16, 1945. The U.S. was the first country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapon.

July 17


July 18


July 19


  • The 1996 Summer Olympic Games were held in Atlanta from 19 July 1996 to 4 August 1996. At the Atlanta Games, for the first time, all 197 National Olympic Committee recognized at the time were represented.[137]

July 20


  • American, English and Dutch researchers have presented a new map of the human brain characterizing 97 previously undiscovered areas, as published in the journal Nature on 20 July 2016.[138]
  • The USA and Cuba on 20 July 2015 formally restored full diplomatic relations and the diplomatic missions of each country became full embassies on the same date after 54 years.
  • Man takes first steps on the moon also popularly known as “One Giant Leap For Mankind”. On July 20th 1969 three astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins reached the moon with the Apollo 11 space flight. Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the moon. Armstrong was the first and Aldrin was the second human being to set foot on the moon.[139]
  • Carol Morris won the 5th Miss Universe contest at the age of 20 representing United States on July 20, 1956. Carol was the second American to win the title.

July 21


July 22


  • Bioengineers led by Kit Parker from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts have made an artificial jellyfish using silicone and muscle cells from a rat’s heart. The synthetic creature, dubbed a medusoid, looks like a flower with eight petals. When placed in an electric field, it pulses and swims exactly like its living counterpart. The research was published on 22 July 2012 in Nature Biotechnology.[140]

July 23


  • Explorers discovered a World War II-era German submarine nearly 70 years after it sank under U.S. attack in waters off Nantucket. The submarine, U-550, was found on 23 July 2012 by a privately funded group organized by New Jersey lawyer Joe Mazraani.[141]

July 24


  • American researchers have captured the first three-dimensional snapshots of the major brain receptor, AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor, in action. The receptor, which regulates most electrical signaling in the brain, is involved in several important brain activities, including memory and learning, as revealed in the journal Nature on 24 July 2017.[142]
  • Miriam Stevenson won the Miss Universe title in 1954 representing United States. Miss Universe 1954, the 3rd annual Miss Universe pageant, was held on July 24, 1954 at Long Beach Municipal Auditorium, California. Miriam was the first American to win the title.

July 25


July 26


  • A team of astronomers from the USA has potentially discovered the first known exomoon, a moon beyond our Solar System. If confirmed, the exomoon is likely to be about the size and mass of Neptune, as revealed on 26 July 2017 on the Arxiv pre-print site.[143]
  • The United States men's national football team claimed its sixth CONCACAF championship beating Jamaica 2-1 in the final on 26 July 2017.
  • Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have successfully implanted false memories of an event that never happened in the brains of mice as part of a study showing how easy it is to create inaccurate recollections of what happened in the past. They also found that many of the neurological traces of these memories are identical in nature to those of authentic memories. Their study was published on 26 July 2013 in the journal Science.[144]

July 27


July 28


  • The 1984 Summer Olympic Games were held in California, United States from 28 July to 12 August. The Games produce a healthy profit and become the model for future hosts[145]

July 29


July 30


  • United States was the proud organizer of the 1932 Summer Olympic Games. The games were held in Los Angeles, California from July 30 to August 14, 1932.

July 31



August

August 1


  • A team of archaeologists from Brown University have uncovered a Native village site in Northwest Alaska that is believed to be at least 200 years old, as reported on 1 August 2013. The village is one of the biggest archaeological sites discovered in the Arctic. Local residents hope the research will tell them more about their ancestors.[146]

August 2


  • American swimmer Michael Phelps won his first individual gold at London Olympics 2012 - and his 20th Olympic medal - in the men's 200m individual medley on 2 August 2012. Earlier Phelps became the most decorated Olympian of all time when he won a record 19th Olympic medal at the London Games on 31 July 2012 as the United States took 4x200m freestyle relay gold.[147]

August 3


August 4


  • American swimmer Missy Franklin became the first woman to win six gold medals at a single World Championships when she led the United States off to victory in the 4x100m medley relay on 4 August 2013.

August 5


  • NASA's most advanced Mars rover to date, Curiosity, has landed on the Red Planet. The one-ton rover, hanging by ropes from a rocket backpack, touched down onto Mars on 5 August 2012 to end a 36-week flight and begin a two-year investigation.[148]

August 6


August 7


  • America's Katie Ledecky smashed women's 400m swimming World Record to win her first gold at the 2016 Rio Olympic Games in 3 minutes 56.46 seconds.
  • Bottlenose dolphins can remember each other's signature whistles for more than 20 years, a study by Jason Bruck of the University of Chicago's Institute for Mind and Biology said on 7 August 2013 -- the longest social memory ever observed in an animal to date.[149]

August 8


  • Scientists have discovered a treasure trove of prehistoric animal remains in a cave in Wyoming, USA, as revealed on 8 August 2014.[150]

August 9


  • A group of entomologists led by Professor James Liebherr from Cornell University has found more than 40 new species of beetles on the steep slopes of the Tahitian mountains in France. The research findings were published on 9 August 2013 in the journal ZooKeys.[151]

August 10


August 11


  • The United States became the first country to win the Olympic Women's Individual All-Around Artistic Gymnastics title four consecutive times with a remarkable win at the 2016 Rio Olympic Games in Brazil.

August 12


  • NASA's Parker Solar Probe, the fastest spacecraft in history, blasted off atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket from the U.S. state of Florida on 12 August 2018, on a mission to study the Sun closer than any other spacecraft.[152]

August 13


  • American based commercial vendor of space imagery and geospatial content DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3, the most powerful commercial imaging satellite ever built, was successfully launched into orbit on 13 August 2014.

August 14


  • American space transport company SpaceX successfully launched and re-landed its Falcon 9 rocket on a mission to resupply the International Space Station on 14 August 2017.
  • Researchers from the US and an international team have discovered two new species of bone-devouring worms thriving on the icy-cold seafloor of the Southern Ocean. The new species, named Osedax antarcticus and Osedax deceptionensis, that dine on decaying whale skeletons are described on 14 August 2013 in the Royal Society journal Proceedings B.[153]

August 15


  • Researchers at Harvard University have devised a flash mob of more than 1,000 tiny robots that can move like a swarm of bees and assemble themselves in various shapes, such as those of sea stars or letters of the alphabet. The work, could help develop self-assembling tools and structures, was reported in Science on 15 August 2014.[154]
  • Scientists in the US on 15 August 2013 reported they have discovered a new animal - named as olinguito, a small animal that looks like a cross between a cat and a teddy bear - living in the cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador. It is the first new species of carnivore to be identified in the Western hemisphere in 35 years, a discovery that scientists say is incredibly rare in the 21st Century.
  • A massive so-called galaxy cluster, one of the largest structures in the universe, has been discovered about 5.7 billion light years from Earth and credited with setting several important new cosmic records, according to an official news release by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics on August 15, 2012.[155]
  • In a major breakthrough, an international team of scientists from the University of Colorado and University of Adelaide has proven that addiction to morphine and heroin can be blocked, while at the same time increasing pain relief. The team discovered the key mechanism in the body's immune system that amplifies addiction to opioid drugs and found that the immune-addiction response can be blocked by a drug known as plus-naloxone. The research was published on 15 August 2012 in the Journal of Neuroscience.[156]

August 16


  • Remains of the oldest ancestor of the most evolutionarily successful and long-lived mammal lineage have been unearthed in China, according to a new study by researchers from the US and China published on 16 August 2013 in the journal Science. The mammal - one of several creatures known as multituberculates - looked like a cross between a small rat and a chipmunk. It lived 160 million years ago during the Cretaceous era.[157]

August 17


  • A new family of spiders, which measures up to 3 inches across with its legs outstretched, named Trogloraptor for its fearsome claws has been discovered in a cave in southern Oregon in the United States. It is the first new family of spiders to be found in North America since the 1890s. The formal description of the new species appeared in the scientific journal ZooKeys on 17 August 2012.[158]

August 18


August 19


  • Biologists from the USA and Panama have discovered a type of nocturnal hunting spider from the genus Selenops, about two inches across, that is able to steer while falling, much like a wingsuit flyer, in order to return to the tree from which it fell, according to a study published on 19 August 2015 in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.[159]
  • In a world first, a team of researchers from the USA, Spain and France has achieved brain-to-brain transmission of information between humans. The successful transmission of information via the Internet between two human subjects – located 5,000 miles apart - was described in PLOS ONE on 19 August 2014.[160]

August 20


  • American scientists have confirmed the existence of ice on the Moon's surface for the first time, a discovery that could one day help humans survive there. Their findings were published on 20 August 2018 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.[161]

August 21


August 22


August 23


  • American swimmer Katie Ledecky broke her own world record for the women's 400 meters freestyle at the Pan Pacific championships in Australia on 23 August 2014. Katie won the final in 3 minutes and 58.37 seconds.

August 24


  • Swimmer Katie Ledecky broke her 1500m world record at the Pan Pacific championships in Australia on 24 August 2014 with an astonishing swim of 15 minutes 28.36 seconds, carving almost six seconds off the old mark.
  • Conjoined twins, joined from just below the breast bone to just below the belly button, were successfully separated in a delicate nine-hour operation at the Medical City Children's Hospital in Dallas on 24 August 2013.
  • American Justin Howard, also known as "Nordic Thunder", won the 17th Air Guitar World Championships in Oulu, Finland on 24 August 2012.

August 25


August 26


  • The United States of America created the largest marine reserve on the planet, by expanding the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument off the coast of Hawaii to 582,578 square miles, as announced by President Obama on 26 August 2016.[162]

August 27


  • University of Washington researchers have performed what they believe is the first noninvasive human-to-human brain interface, with one researcher able to send a brain signal via the Internet to control the hand motions of a fellow researcher, according to an official announcement on 27 August 2013.[163]

August 28


August 29


  • On August 29, 1957 testing of the first breathalyzer took place in the USA. It was formerly known as a ‘drunkometer’.

August 30


August 31


  • Doctors at University Florida Health Shands Children’s Hospital, USA successfully separated conjoined twin girls with the help of 3-D printing, as announced on 31 August 2016.[164]
  • Researchers from the USA and Singapore have devised a way to use magnetic resonance relaxometry (MRR), a close cousin of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to detect a parasitic waste product in the blood of malaria infected patients. This technique could offer a more reliable and cheap way to detect malaria, as published in the journal Nature Medicine on 31 August 2014.[165]


September

September 1


September 2


  • American endurance swimmer Diana Nyad became the first person to swim from Cuba to Florida without the help of a shark cage. The 64-year-old Nyad completed the 110-mile journey on 2 September 2013, about 53 hours after starting her journey from Havana.[166]

September 3


September 4


September 5


  • In a world first, American and a team of international researchers have transformed tissue cells into skin cells to help heal serious wounds, a technique that could revolutionise care for victims of burns and other severe injuries. Their study was published on 5 September 2018 in the journal Nature.[167]
  • Scientists from the US, the UK and Japan have discovered the single largest volcano in the world, a dead colossus deep beneath the Pacific waves, according to their researched published on 5 September 2013 in the journal Nature Geoscience.[168]

September 6


  • American scientists at The University of Texas at Austin have invented a powerful handheld tool The MasSpec Pen that rapidly and accurately identifies cancerous tissue during surgery, delivering results in about 10 seconds—more than 150 times as fast as existing technology. Tests, published in Science Translational Medicine on 6 September 2017, suggest the technology is accurate 96% of the time.[169]

September 7


  • A collaborative effort by researchers from the USA and their international colleagues has identified compounds that act on a novel target in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Their experiments that cured mice of the disease were detailed in the journal Nature on 7 September 2016.[170]
  • American Serena Williams beat Danish Caroline Wozniacki 6-3 6-3 on 7 September 2014 to win her sixth US Open and 18th Grand Slam tennis title.

September 8


September 9


  • American female professional tennis player Serena Williams won her fourth U.S. Open crown on 9 September 2012 beating Belarusian Victoria Azarenka 6-2, 2-6, 7-5 in the final.

September 10


  • Scientists in the United States revealed they had coated spider silk with carbon nanotubes, creating a fibre that is not only super-strong but also conducts electricity. Their study was published in the journal Nature Communications on 10 September 2013.[171]

September 11


  • Astronomers have found a cloud of gas and dust around a young star being devoured by the giant black hole at the heart of our Milky Way galaxy, a find that, scientists say, suggests planets can still form in this cosmic maelstrom. The research by a team at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, US, is published in Nature Communications journal on 11 September 2012.[172]

September 12


September 13


  • The United States successfully launched a national defense satellite for National Reconnaissance Office atop an Atlas 5 rocket on 13 September 2012 from Vandenberg Air Force Base on the central California coast. The Atlas is also carrying 11 tiny satellites known as Cubesats to conduct research on subjects ranging from space weather to tracking maritime shipping containers. The Cubesats include projects of four universities.

September 14


  • Six American scientists credited with advances in eyesight research and clinical care won the Lisbon-based Champalimaud Foundation's annual Vision Award on 14 September 2012.

September 15


September 16


September 17


  • American astronomers using data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and ground observation have found a small galaxy named M60-UCD1 that has a black hole with a mass equal to 21 million suns. The finding, revealed on 17 September 2014, implies there are many other compact galaxies in the universe that contain supermassive black holes.[173]
  • On September 17, 1787 the Constitution of the United States of America was adopted. This Constitution is the oldest written constitution still in use by any nation in the world.[174]

September 18


September 19


September 20


September 21


  • Olivia Hallisey from the USA won the Grand Prize at the 2015 Google Science Fair for creating a novel way to detect Ebola.[175]
  • California based space transport company SpaceX successfully launched a cargo ship, carrying the first 3D printer for astronauts in orbit, to International Space Station on 21 September 2014.

September 22


September 23


  • Researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA have identified a brain circuit that encodes time and place. Their research observations were based on experiment on mice and was detailed on 23 September 2015 in the journal Neuron.[176]

September 24


  • American astronomers and their international colleagues have detected water vapor in the atmosphere of a planet that orbits a star far beyond our solar system. This marks the first time that an exoplanet, named HAT-P-11b, smaller than the size of Jupiter has been revealed to feature traces of water, according to the findings published in the journal Nature on 24 September 2014.[177]

September 25


  • Team USA won the 2013 America's Cup, an international yachting competition, defeating Team New Zealand 9-8 after the Americans staged one of the most stunning comebacks of the sporting history in the world to move from 8-1 down to win the series.
  • A team of scientists, including researchers from the USA, have found a fossil of a 419-million-year-old ancient armoured fish in China, in what is being hailed as the most significant paleontological discovery in decades. Their study was reported in the journal Nature on 25 September 2013.[178]

September 26


  • USA ranked as the world’s second most competitive economy, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report published on 26 September 2017. This report identifies the set of institutions, policies and factors that determine the level of productivity of a country.[179]

September 27


September 28


  • American scientists have created fully biodegradable electronics that could allow doctors to implant medical devices that dissolve when they are no longer needed. It is an early step in a technology that may hold promise, not only for medical science, but also for disposal of electronic waste. The research was reported online in the journal Science on 28 September 2012.[180]

September 29


September 30


  • The world’s first hydroelectric power plant, later known as the Appleton Edison Light Company, began operation on Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin on September 30, 1882.[181]


October

October 1


  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018 was awarded jointly to James P. Allison of the USA and Tasuku Honjo of Japan for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.[182]
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an agency of the United States government that is in charge of the civilian airplanes or space research, became operational on October 1, 1958. NASA grew out of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA), which had been researching flight technology for more than 40 years.[183]

October 2


  • The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018 was jointly awarded to Arthur Ashkin of the USA, Gérard Mourou of France and Donna Strickland of Canada for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics.[184]
  • American scientists Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young were awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.[185]
  • American scientists have observed an exotic particle Majorana Fermion that behaves simultaneously like matter and antimatter, a feat of math and engineering that could yield powerful computers based on quantum mechanics. Their findings were published on 2 October 2014 in the journal Science.[186]

October 3


  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018 was jointly awarded to Frances H. Arnold and George P. Smith of the USA and Sir Gregory P. Winter of England for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.[187]
  • American physicists Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish and Kip S. Thorne were awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves.[188]
  • Paul C. Sereno, a paleontologist at the University of Chicago and a dinosaur specialist, has identified a new species of miniature dinosaur, about the size of an average house cat. The finding is reported on 3 October 2012 in the online journal ZooKeys.[189]
  • Bruce A. Beutler from the United States, together with Jules A. Hoffmann from Luxembourg, was awarded one-half of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity.[190]

October 4


  • Joachim Frank of the USA, Jacques Dubochet of Switzerland and Richard Henderson of England were awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution.[191]
  • Researchers in the USA and Australia have developed a gel-like glue, called MeTro, that seals wounds in seconds. The discovery was described in a paper published on 4 October 2017 in Science Translational Medicine.[192]
  • The United States Air Force successfully launched a satellite on 4 October 2012 to be part of the existing navigation system for the military. The satellite, is more resistant to signal jamming in hostile environments, was carried up by an unmanned Delta 4 rocket.
  • Saul Perlmutter from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California and Adam G. Riess from Johns Hopkins University and Space Telescope Science Institute won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.[193]
  • American researchers Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system.[194]

October 5


  • The first United States President to give an address on television was Harry S. Truman from the White House on October 5, 1947. Truman was the 33rd President of the United States and he was in the office from April 12, 1945 to January 20, 1953.

October 6


  • Richard F. Heck and Ei-ichi Negishi from USA jointly won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2010 for the development of palladium-catalyzed cross coupling. This chemical tool has vastly improved the possibilities for chemists to create sophisticated chemicals, for example carbon-based molecules as complex as those created by nature itself.[195]
  • Irwin Rose from University of California, Irvine, USA jointly won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2004 for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation.[196]

October 7


  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 was jointly awarded to Paul Modrich of the USA , Aziz Sancar of Turkey and Tomas Lindahl of Sweden for mechanistic studies of DNA repair.[197]
  • Shuji Nakamura from the USA and Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano of Japan jointly won the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources.[198]
  • American scientists James E. Rothman and Randy W. Schekman and German scientist Thomas C. Südhof were jointly awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells.
  • Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) on 7 October 2012 successfully launched its Dragon spacecraft aboard a Falcon 9 rocket on the first official cargo resupply mission to the International Space Station. The launch went off on schedule at 8:35 p.m. ET from Launch Complex 40 in Cape Canaveral, Florida.
  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2002 was awarded jointly to American biologist H. Robert Horvitz for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.[199]
  • Bernard Silver was a graduate student at Drexel Institute of Technology in Philadelphia joined together with fellow graduate student Norman Joseph Woodland invented the Barcode, a machine-readable representation of data regarding objects. On October 7, 1952 US Patent #2,612,994 was issued to inventors Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver for creating barcode.

October 8


  • American researchers have discovered a drug that prevents the extensive brain cell death in those with Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study published in the journal Nature Chemistry on 8 October 2018.[200]
  • The 2018 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was jointly awarded to American economists William D. Nordhaus for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis and Paul M. Romer for integrating technological innovations into long-run acroeconomic analysis.[201]
  • Eric Betzig and William E. Moerner from the USA and Stefan W. Hell from Germany jointly won the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy.[202]
  • Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien from the United States were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2008 for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein (GFP).[203]
  • Mario R. Capecchi from the University of Utah jointly won the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells.[204]
  • Raymond Davis Jr at the University of Pennsylvania, USA won the 2002 Nobel Prize (one half jointly with Professor Masatoshi Koshiba at the University of Tokyo, Japan) in Physics for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos. Riccardo Giacconi at the Associated Universities Inc., Washington DC, USA won the other half of the Nobel Prize in Physics for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources.[205]

October 9


  • Economist Richard H. Thaler from the University of Chicago, USA was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Economics for his contributions to behavioural economics.[206]
  • American and Chinese scientists have successfully sequenced the genomes of two important pumpkin species, Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata, as published on 9 October 2017 in Molecular Plant.[207]
  • Three scientists from the USA, Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel, jointly won the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems.
  • The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012 was awarded jointly to American physicist David J. Wineland and French physicist Serge Haroche for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems.[208]
  • The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded one half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2002 jointly to John B. Fenn from United States and Koichi Tanaka from Japan. They were awarded for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules.[209]
  • American scientist Paul Greengard jointly won The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2000 for his contributions in the discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.[210]

October 10


  • American economist Oliver Hart jointly won the 2016 Nobel Prize in Economics for his contributions to contract theory while working for Harvard University.[211]
  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012 was awarded jointly to American scientists Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors.[212]
  • Thomas J. Sargent from New York University and Christopher A. Sims from Princeton University jointly won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Economics for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy.
  • Thomas C. Schelling, an American economist, jointly won the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for 2005 for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis.

October 11


  • American and French astronomers have discovered a planet twice the size of Earth made largely out of diamond. The planet is 40 light years, or 230 trillion miles, away from Earth and was reported on 11 October 2012 ahead of the official research publication in the US journal Astrophysical Journal Letters.
  • American economist Peter A. Diamond and Dale T. Mortensen were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences on October 11, 2010. They won the prize jointly for their analysis of markets with search frictions.

October 12


  • Christopher Columbus discovered America. He landed in the United States on October 12, 1492. It is known as Columbus Day.[213]

October 13


  • American singer songwriter Bob Dylan won the 2016 Nobel Prize for Literature for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition.[214]

October 14


  • American economists Eugene F. Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert J. Shiller jointly won the 2013 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for their empirical analysis of asset prices.
  • American and English scientists discovered a 46-million-year-old mosquito fossil in a Montana riverbed so well-preserved that it still has blood in its stomach. They reported the finding on 14 October 2013 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.[215]

October 15


  • The Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences 2012 was awarded jointly to American economists Alvin E. Roth and Lloyd S. Shapley for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design.[216]
  • American scientists have identified a soybean gene responsible for making some varieties resistant to the cyst nematode, a pest responsible for $1 billion in annual crop losses. The research was published on 15 October 2012 in the journal Nature.[217]
  • Professor Sheldon L. Glashow and Professor Steven Weinberg from United States jointly (along with Professor Abdus Salam from Pakistan) won the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including inter alla the prediction of the weak neutral current.[218]

October 16


October 17


October 18


  • Kenneth G. Wilson from USA won The Nobel Prize in Physics in 1982 for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions. His work provided important insights to the field of critical statics and dynamics in statistical physics.[219]
  • The Territory of Alaska was officially transferred from Russia to the United States on October 18, 1867.[220]

October 19


  • American Photographer Tim Laman won the Grand title at the 2016 Wildlife Photographer of the Year awards for his image of an endangered orangutan makes its way up a strangler fig tree in Indonesia.
  • A working human intestine is generated in a laboratory at Cincinnati Children's Hospital in the United States from induced pluripotent stem cells, paving the way to new treatments for gut disorders. Their research was reported on 19 October 2014 in the journal Nature Medicine.[221]
  • American physicist Leon Lederman and Melvin Schwartz jointly won the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino.[222]
  • Professor Roald Hoffmann from Cornell University, NY, USA jointly (with Professor Kenichi Fukui from Japan) won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1981 for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions.[223]

October 20


  • American photographer Michael Nichols won the 2014 Wildlife Photographer of the Year (WPY) Award for a stark image of lions resting on a rock outcrop in the Serengeti.[224]

October 21


  • Thomas Alva Edison, one of the greatest inventors of all time from Ohio, United States, invented the first commercially practical incandescent light bulb. He was not the only person trying to invent an incandescent light bulb, as there have been others trying to work on it as well. However, on October 21, 1879, Edision was the first person who successfully demonstrated incandescent electric light bulb that lasted for longer hours.[225]

October 22


  • The Skysource / Skywater Alliance, based in Venice Beach, California, was announced as the grand prize winner of the $1.75M Water Abundance XPRIZE for their technologies that harvest fresh water from thin air on 22 October 2018.

October 23


  • In a radical new theory, scientists from the USA and Australia have proposed that parallel universes really do exist and they interact with one another. They show, in a study published on 23 October 2014 in the journal Physical Review X, that such an interaction could explain everything that is bizarre about quantum mechanics.[226]

October 24


  • American computer researcher Alan Eustace parachuted from a balloon near the top of the stratosphere on 24 October 2014, falling faster than the speed of sound and breaking the world altitude record set in 2012 by Austrian Felix Baumgartner. Mr. Eustace rose to the maximum altitude of 135,890 feet to break the previous record of 128,100 feet.

October 25


  • Paul Beatty was named as the first American writer to win the prestigious Man Booker fiction prize for his novel The Sellout on 25 October 2016.[227]

October 26


October 27


October 28


  • American astronomers and their international colleagues have discovered an elusive new low-mass, low-density planet located 2,300 light years away from Earth with an atmosphere loaded with hydrogen and helium. The planet dubbed as PH3c was described in the Astrophysical Journal on 28 October 2014.[228]
  • The US space agency NASA on 28 October 2011 launched a first-of-its kind satellite that will send back data on weather and climate to help forecasters predict major storms and other changes in the environment.[229]

October 29


October 30


  • Alexandria Mills from the United States was crowned Miss World 2010 on October 30, 2010. Mills won the title at the age of 18. She was the third woman to win the title from United States.[230]

October 31



November

November 1


November 2


November 3


November 4


  • Researchers at the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor tested an energy-harvesting device that runs on piezoelectricity - the electrical charge generated from motion, according to an early study which was released at the annual American Heart Association scientific conference on 4 November 2012. This device could one day harness energy from a beating heart to produce enough electricity to keep a pacemaker running.[231]
  • Barack Obama was elected the 44th President of the United States on November 4, 2008. Obama was elected as the first African American to hold the office.

November 5


  • An international team of scientists, including researchers from the USA, believed to have discovered ice sheet in eastern Antarctica that may date back 1.5 million years. The newly discovered ice may reveal earth's climate conditions of the distant past. The study was published on 5 November 2013 in the Climate of the Past journal.[232]
  • Fossilised bones unearthed by a British palaeontologist in colonial Tanzania in the 1930s may be those of the oldest dinosaur ever found, American and English researchers reported on 5 November 2012 in a research paper published in Biology Letters, a journal of Britain's Royal Society.

November 6


  • A new dinosaur, about 30ft (9m) long, that roamed the Earth 80 million years ago has been discovered in southern Utah, according to a study published by American and Canadian researchers on 6 November 2013 in the journal Plos One. The predator was named Lythronax argestes which means "king of gore".[233]

November 7


  • An international team of astronomers, including researchers from the United States of America, has discovered what they are calling a new “super-Earth,” which is seven times the size of Earth and has the right conditions to support life. Their research findings were published on 7 November 2012 in the Journal Astronomy and Astrophysics.
  • Researchers at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University have mimicked pulmonary edema in a microchip lined by living human cells, as reported on 7 November 2012 in the journal Science Translational Medicine. They used "lung-on-a-chip" to study drug toxicity and identify potential new therapies to prevent life-threatening conditions. The study offers further proof-of-concept that human "organs-on-chips" hold tremendous potential to replace traditional approaches to drug discovery and development.[234]

November 8


  • American and Australian scientists have revealed that a protein, called Piezo 1, first discovered in 2010 is directly responsible for sensing touch. The study was published on 8 November 2016 in the journal Cell Reports.[235]
  • Gina Tolleson from the United States (US) won the 40th Miss World contest which was held on 8 November 1990 in the London Palladium, London. Gina was the second titleholder from the US.[236]

November 9


  • Sarah Parcak, Professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, was named as the winner of the prestigious TED Prize on 9 November 2015 for her pioneering use of infrared imagery from satellites to uncover ancient archaeological sites.[237]

November 10


  • American researchers have discovered the genetic mechanism that controls the shape of some common fruits, vegetables and grains, as revealed in the journal Nature Communications on 10 November 2018.[238]

November 11


  • Duke University scientists have succeeded in making a small cylinder invisible to microwaves, succeeding in "cloaking" an object for the first time. The research findings were published on 11 November 2012 in the journal Nature Materials.[239]

November 12


November 13


  • Scientists from the USA and China have unearthed the oldest big cat fossil yet, suggesting the predator — similar to a snow leopard — evolved in Asia and spread out. The fossil found in Tibet was estimated at 4.4 million years old and reported on 13 November 2013 in the Royal Society journal Proceedings B.[240]

November 14


November 15


November 16


  • American surgeons have successfully completed the world's most extensive face transplant to date, including the entire scalp, ears and eyelids, as announced on 16 November 2015. A volunteer firefighter badly burned in a 2001 blaze has received the transplant at the NYU Langone Medical Center.[241]

November 17


  • American designer Isis Shiffer won the prestigious James Dyson design award 2016 for her design of a folding, recyclable helmet, named EcoHelmet, for bike share users.
  • American scientists discovered an active volcano buried beneath a thick layer of ice in Antarctica. The finding, detailed in the journal Nature Geoscience on 17 November 2013, marks the first time that an active volcano has been discovered under the ice of the frozen continent.[242]
  • Electrical engineer Douglas Engelbart received the U.S. patent for the “X-Y position indicator for a display system” in 1970 which he nicknamed the computer “mouse” because its cord looks like a tail.[243]

November 18


  • American space research institute NASA on 18 November 2017 launched a next-generation satellite, called the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 (JPSS-1), into space designed to monitor weather around the world and help improve forecasts.[244]

November 19


  • The United States successfully launched a highly advanced geostationary weather satellite Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) on 19 November 2016 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, expected to boost the nation’s weather observation capabilities, leading to more accurate and timely forecasts, watches and warnings.[245]

November 20


November 21


  • First ever plane with no moving parts like propellers or turbine blades, developed by the American scientists at MIT, successfully completed its maiden flight, as revealed on 21 November 2018.[246]

November 22


  • American researchers on 22 November 2013 announced the discovery of Siats meekerorum, a meat-eating dinosaur that stretched more than 30 feet long, in eastern Utah.[247]
  • A team of doctors at Stanford University’s Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital successfully placed pacemaker in a 15-minute-old premature newborn with heart disease on 22 November 2011, saving her life and making the newborn the youngest person in known history to receive the heart-pumping device.

November 23


  • Marjorie Wallace, an American model and television personality, won the 23rd Miss World contest on November 23, 1973. Wallace was the first American to win the title at the age of 19 years and 10 months.[236]

November 24


  • Olympic champion Allyson Felix of the U.S. was named female athlete of the year by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) at a ceremony in Barcelona on 24 November 2012.

November 25


November 26


November 27


November 28


November 29


November 30



December

December 1


December 2


  • Researchers from North Carolina State University, USA have discovered a new phase of solid carbon, called Q-carbon, which is harder and brighter than naturally formed diamonds. Their work is described on 2 December 2015 in the Journal of Applied Physics.[248]

December 3


December 4


  • For the first time in the United States, a baby was born to a mother who received a uterus transplant, doctors at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas announced on 4 December 2017.[249]
  • A team of International scientists, including American researchers, have discovered huge reserves of freshwater buried beneath the seabed on continental shelves off Australia, China, North America and South Africa. Their study was published on 4 December 2013 in the journal Nature.[250]

December 5


  • SpaceX in the USA successfully launched an unmanned Dragon cargo spacecraft to the International Space Station on 5 December 2018.
  • The US space agency NASA on 5 December 2014 successfully launched its Orion crew vehicle and returned it to Earth. The test mission was the first in more than four decades of a new US spacecraft intended to carry humans to the Mars or beyond.[251]

December 6


  • Conjoined twins Erika and Eva Sandoval were successfully separated at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford, California, USA in a 17-hour surgery that began on 6 December 2016. Prior to separation, the two-year-old twins of Antelope, California, shared much of their lower body.[252]

December 7


December 8


  • Lindsey Vonn of the United States won the women's skiing World Cup super-G at Saint Moritz on 8 December 2012 ahead of Tina Maze of Slovenia and fellow American Julia Mancuso.

December 9


  • For the first time, a litter of puppies was born by in vitro fertilization, thanks to work by Cornell University researchers in the USA. The breakthrough, described in a study published on 9 December 2015 in the journal Public Library of Science ONE, opens the door for conserving endangered canid species and for study of genetic diseases.[253]

December 10


  • Charles G. Dawes, former US Vice President, jointly won The Nobel Peace Prize in 1925 for his leading contributions on the Dawes Plan which was proposed following World War I and enabled Germany to restore its economy.[254]
  • Former President of the United States Thomas Woodrow Wilson won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919 for his efforts to establish peace after World War I by founding The League of Nations and shaping the historic Treaty of Versailles.[255]
  • The Nobel Peace Prize for 1912 was awarded to American lawyer Elihu Root in recognition of his leading role in drafting various treaties of arbitration in world affairs.[256]
  • The Nobel Peace Prize for 1906 was awarded to President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt for his contributions in resolving Japan-Russia conflict in early 1900's.[257]

December 11


December 12


  • In support of the United States national defense, a National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) payload was successfully launched into orbit aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex-3E on 12 December 2014.

December 13


December 14


  • American swimmer Ryan Lochte shattered his own world record in winning the 200m individual medley at the World Short Course Championships on 14 December 2012. Ryan finished in 1 minute, 49.63 seconds breaking his previous record of 1 minute, 50.08 seconds.

December 15


  • Facebook, a social networking web site, founder Mark Zuckerberg has been named Time magazine's Person of the Year for 2010. Zuckerberg’s accomplishments in 2010 were outstanding as he cemented Facebook’s status as one of the hottest Internet companies. In 2010 this youngest billionaire also pledged to give the majority of his wealth to charity.[258]

December 16


  • The discovery, by an international research team from the USA and Kenya, of an ancient bone at a burial site in Kenya was reported on 16 December 2013. The discovery of this bone is the earliest evidence of a modern human-like hand, indicating that this anatomical feature existed more than half a million years earlier than previously known.[259]

December 17


  • A woman who is paralyzed from the neck down has stunned doctors with her extraordinary skill at using a robotic arm that is controlled by her thoughts alone. Brain implants were used to control the robotic arm, in the study by doctors from Pittsburgh reported in the Lancet medical journal on 17 December 2012.[260]
  • Two American brothers- Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright, known as the inventor of world's first successful airplane, piloted the first powered airplane on December 17, 1903. The first flight lasted 12 seconds and covered 120 feet.

December 18


December 19


  • A team of American and Canadian geologists has discovered a new species of bird, named Tingmiatornis arctica, in the Canadian Arctic. At approximately 90 million years old, the bird fossils are among the oldest avian records found in the northernmost latitude, and offer further evidence of an intense warming event during the late Cretaceous period, as detailed in the journal Scientific Reports on 19 December 2016.[261]
  • Scientists from the USA and their international colleagues have discovered several new species of fish at record-breaking depths of 8145 meters in the Mariana Trench - the deepest place on Earth, as reported on 19 December 2014.
  • A team of American and Russian scientists has discovered a previously-unknown dwarf galaxy KKs3 located about 7 million light years away from the Milky Way. Their findings were reported on 19 December 2014 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.[262]
  • Scientists from the USA, Russia and France have created a map of the distribution of water vapor in Mars’ atmosphere. Their research, reported on 19 December 2014, includes observations of seasonal variations in atmospheric concentrations using data collected over ten years by the Russian-French SPICAM spectrometer aboard the Mars Express orbiter.[263]
  • Twenty-year-old Olivia Culpo from the United States of America was crowned the Miss Universe 2012. Boston University student Olivia is the first Miss USA to win Miss Universe in 15 years.

December 20


New Mexico became the 17th State to grant marriage equality. The United States progresses one step closer to joining the elite group of 16 countries that have enshrined this basic human right in law for all their citizens

December 21


  • In a world’s first, American space transport company SpaceX successfully landed an unmanned Falcon 9 rocket upright back on Earth on 21 December 2015 after sending 11 satellites into orbit.[264]
  • After detailed study of the meteorite found in California in April 2012, an international team of scientists, including researchers from the United States, reports it contains some of the oldest material in the Solar System. The research findings were published in the journal Science on 21 December 2012.[265]
  • American astronaut Don Pettit was launched to space aboard the Soyuz TMA-3M spacecraft on 21 December 2011 from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Don was destined for the International Space Station.[266]

December 22


  • American space transport company SpaceX successfully launched 10 satellites for Iridium Communications into orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on 22 December 2017.
  • An international team of researchers, including scientists from the USA, have discovered a large reservoir of melt water that sits under the Greenland ice sheet all year round, could yield important clues to sea level rise. Their study was published on 22 December 2013 in the journal Nature Geoscience.[267]

December 23


  • SpaceX on 23 December 2018 launched the U.S. Air Force’s most powerful GPS satellite ever built aboard a Falcon 9 rocket.

December 24


December 25


December 26


December 27


December 28


  • American adventurer Colin O'Brady became the first person to complete a solo trek across Antarctica in 54 days without assistance of any kind, as revealed on 28 December 2018.

December 29


December 30


December 31



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