Difference between revisions of "England"

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* English scientists reverse ageing process in rat brain stem cells, according to their research published in Nature on 14 August 2019.<ref>https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1484-9</ref>
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* English scientists reversed ageing process in rat brain stem cells, according to their research published in Nature on 14 August 2019.<ref>https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1484-9</ref>
 
* Researchers from England and an international team have discovered two new species of bone-devouring worms thriving on the icy-cold seafloor of the Southern Ocean. The new species, named Osedax antarcticus and Osedax deceptionensis, that dine on decaying whale skeletons are described on 14 August 2013 in the Royal Society journal Proceedings B.<ref>http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/280/1768/20131390</ref>
 
* Researchers from England and an international team have discovered two new species of bone-devouring worms thriving on the icy-cold seafloor of the Southern Ocean. The new species, named Osedax antarcticus and Osedax deceptionensis, that dine on decaying whale skeletons are described on 14 August 2013 in the Royal Society journal Proceedings B.<ref>http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/280/1768/20131390</ref>
 
* Researchers from England and an international team have set out the first comprehensive map of mutational processes behind the development of tumors - work that should in future lead to better ways to treat and prevent a wide range of cancers. Their study, published on 14 August 2013 in the journal Nature, discovered the genetic imprints and signatures left by DNA-damaging processes that lead to cancer.<ref>http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12477.html</ref>
 
* Researchers from England and an international team have set out the first comprehensive map of mutational processes behind the development of tumors - work that should in future lead to better ways to treat and prevent a wide range of cancers. Their study, published on 14 August 2013 in the journal Nature, discovered the genetic imprints and signatures left by DNA-damaging processes that lead to cancer.<ref>http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12477.html</ref>

Revision as of 01:02, 20 August 2019

England
Flag
England LF.gif
Location  Europe
Capital  London
Area  130,395 sq km
Population  55,268,100
"The comfort of the tree is the comfort of the bird"
(Proverb/Quote of the Week)

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England Map.png


January

January 1


  • English professional darts player Rob Cross won the PDC World Championship at Alexandra Palace in London on 1 January 2018 beating legendary Phil Taylor 7-2.
  • English professional darts player Phil Taylor won his 16th world darts title by beating Michael van Gerwen from the Netherlands 7-4 in an absorbing PDC World Championship final on 1 January 2013.
  • England's first mobile phone call was made across the Vodafone network on January 1, 1985 by veteran comedian Ernie Wise. The first call was made from St Katherine's dock to Vodafone's head office in Newbury.[1]

January 2


January 3


  • Researchers from the University of Reading have uncovered 7,500 year-old remains, worked flint ‘tools', bones, charcoal and hazelnut shells while working at Goldcliff, near Newport, according to an official announcement on 3 January 2013.

January 4


  • Thomas Stevens, an Englishman, became the first man to go around the world on a bicycle in 1987. [Source (Book): Around the World on a Bicycle, Volume 2 by Thomas Stevens]

January 5


  • The first ever One Day International (ODI) Cricket was played on the 5th January 1971 between England and Australia at Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), Melbourne, Australia. It was a 40 six-ball overs match. Despite scoring 190 in 39.4 overs England lost the match by 5 wickets.[2]

January 6


  • English scientists have found some of the earliest evidence for widespread tooth decay in humans based on their analysis of 13,700-year-old skeletal remains found in Morocco. Their study was published on 6 January 2014 in the PNAS journal.[3]

January 7


  • Researchers from England and Singapore have created a new robot controller using game theory, allowing the robot to learn when to assist a human. The research was published in Nature Machine Intelligence on 7 January 2019.[4]
  • England celebrated a historic 3-1 Ashes cricket series win against Australia. The visitors beat the Aussies by an innings and 83 runs to win the fifth and final Test in Sydney on January 7, 2011 and with that The Ashes.[5]
  • Transatlantic telephone service is established in different phases in early 1900s. On January 7, 1927 first transatlantic commercial telephone service began between New York and London.[6]

January 8


January 9


January 10


  • English scientists have discovered new ways to twist and shift light that is expected to open doors to new quantum technologies and telecoms systems, as outlined on 10 January 2019 in Physical Review Letters.[7]
  • The fossilised remains of a giant burrowing bat that lived in New Zealand millions of years ago have been found by a team of English and international scientists. The bat – which was about three times the size of an average bat today – was detailed in the Scientific Reports journal on 10 January 2018.[8]
  • The London Underground is the oldest underground railway system in the world. It was opened on January 10, 1863.

January 11


  • An international team of astronomers, led by academics from the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan), have discovered the largest known structure in the universe, a clump of active galactic cores that stretches 4 billion light-years from end to end. The research findings were published on 11 January 2013 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.[9]

January 12


  • An international research team from England, the USA and Canada have found that mother-daughter reproductive conflict may be the cause why killer whales are one of only three known species of mammal, including humans, go through the menopause. Their findings were reported in the journal Current Biology on 12 January 2017.[10]
  • English archaeologists have discovered exceptionally well-preserved remains of a Bronze Age (1200-800 BC) village in eastern England’s Peterborough, as revealed on 12 January 2016. The settlement would have been home to several families who lived in a number of wooden houses on stilts above water.[11]
  • England Women's Rugby World Cup winner Emily Scarratt won the prestigious Rugby Union Writers' Club Pat Marshall Memorial Award on 12 January 2015 as the sport's personality of the year for 2014.

January 13


January 14


January 15


January 16


  • A team of astronomers from England, Australia and the USA has found the planet 2MASS J2126-8140, until now thought to be a free floating or lonely planet, in the largest solar system ever discovered. The planet, detailed in the journal Royal Astronomical Society on 16 January 2016, has an orbit around its host star that takes nearly a million Earth years and is more than 140 times wider than Pluto's.[12]
  • A large, rare species of spider which lives in darkness has been found in the vaults of Highgate Cemetery in north London, according to an announcement by the London Wildlife Trust on 16 January 2013. Up to 100 spiders were found in the vaults of the cemetery and they may have been thriving undetected for 150 years, experts said.[13]

January 17


  • On 17 January 2012 British scientist Dr Howard Falcon-Lang from the University of London revealed that he had rediscovered fossils from Charles Darwin's collection in an old wooden cabinet in a gloomy corner of the British Geological Survey. The fossils lay undiscovered for more than 150 years.

January 18


January 19


  • English researchers and their international colleagues have identified a series of mutations which make the malaria parasite resistant to an effective antimalarial drug, artemisinin. The results, published in Nature Genetics on 19 January 2015, could help to improve early detection of emerging artemisinin resistance.[14]

January 20


  • Researchers from England and Wales have revealed the earliest Jurassic dinosaur ever found in the UK in a paper published in the journal PLOS ONE on 20 January 2016. The 200 million-year-old dinosaur specimen, named Dracoraptor - meaning dragon thief, was found in Wales in spring 2014.[15]
  • Cambridge University scientists discovered four-stranded DNA in human cells for the first time that could lead to new drugs to fight cancer. The breakthrough of 'quadruple helix' is announced nearly 60 years to the day after DNA's famous double helix was discovered and the findings were published on 20 January 2013 in the journal Nature Chemistry.[16]

January 21


January 22


January 23


  • English researchers, working with an international team of geologists, have discovered an enigmatic fossil of a 450 million year-old creature resembling a tiny ice-cream cone. The discovery was described in a paper published in the journal Palaios on 23 January 2018.[17]
  • English researchers and an international team of scientists have produced the first research findings to suggest that pre-Homo human ancestral species used human-like hand postures much earlier than was previously thought. Their findings, based on fossils analysis, were presented in the journal Science on 23 January 2015.[18]
  • Newcastle University researchers on 23 January 2013 revealed they have developed train carriages that can reduce deaths and injuries in terror attacks by using plastic-coated windows and measures to prevent flying debris.
  • Scientists at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) in Cambridge on 23 January 2013 announced a breakthrough in the quest to turn DNA into a revolutionary form of data storage. The research outcome is expected to make sequencing and reading of the DNA faster and longstanding.[19]

January 24


  • English scientists have sequenced the genome of the world's oldest continuously surviving cancer, a transmissible genital cancer that affects dogs, first arose in a single dog that lived about 11,000 years ago. The cancer survived after the death of this dog by the transfer of its cancer cells to other dogs during mating. The study was published on 24 January 2014 in the journal Science.[20]

January 25


January 26


January 27


January 28


January 29


January 30


  • Ancient Mongolian skull called Mongolanthropus is the earliest modern human yet found in the region, who lived approximately 34 - 35 thousand years ago, as revealed by English, Mongolian and German scientists in Nature Communications on 30 January 2019.[21]

January 31



February

February 1


February 2


February 3


February 4


  • A skeleton found beneath a Leicester car park has been confirmed as that of English king Richard III, the last English king to die in battle. On 4 February 2013, University of Leicester researchers revealed the battle-scarred skeleton unearthed last year is the king, who died at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. It was confirmed based on DNA matching between the bones from the skeleton and that of descendants of the monarch's family.

February 5


  • England won the 2012 Professional Darts Corporation (PDC) World Cup of Darts defeating Australia 4-3 in the final on 5 February 2012.

February 6


  • A team of international scientists, including researchers from England, has discovered more than 450 ancient earthworks in the western Brazilian Amazon, as reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on 6 February 2017.[22]

February 7


  • The first modern Britons, who lived about 10,000 years ago, had dark skin, a groundbreaking DNA analysis of Britain’s oldest complete skeleton ‘Cheddar Man’ has revealed. A joint team at the Britain's Natural History Museum and University College London announced the discovery on 7 February 2018.[23]
  • English scientists have discovered the earliest evidence of human footprints outside of Africa, on the Norfolk Coast in the East of England. The footprints are more than 800,000 years old and were reported on 7 February 2014 in the science journal Plos One.[24]

February 8


February 9


February 10


February 11


  • Parliament in England on 11 February 2015 approved regulation which makes smoking in cars carrying children illegal - a law that will come into force from 1 October 2015.[25]
  • A release of carbon dioxide from the deep ocean helped bring an end to the last Ice Age, according to a new research by English scientists and their international colleagues. The finding, published in Nature on 11 February 2015, gives scientists an insight into how the ocean affects the carbon cycle and climate change.[26]

February 12


February 13


February 14


  • A 250 million-year-old fossil unearthed in China has revealed a pregnant long-necked marine reptile belonging to the animal group Archosauromorpha with its developing embryo, indicating this creature gave birth to live babies rather than laying eggs. The discovery was made by an international team of scientists, including researchers from England, and was detailed in the journal Nature Communications on 14 February 2017. Today Archosauromorpha is represented by birds and crocodiles — which both lay eggs.[27]

February 15


February 16


February 17


  • The bottlenose dolphin only colonized the Mediterranean after the last Ice Age - about 18,000 years ago – according to new research published on 17 February 2015 by English scientists and their international colleagues.[28]

February 18


  • Researchers in Oxford, England have carried out the world’s first gene therapy operation to tackle the root cause of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the UK's most common cause of sight loss, as revealed on 18 February 2019.[29]
  • Fox hunting with dogs was outlawed in England from 18 February 2005. Earlier on 18 November 2004 hunting with dogs was banned in England and Wales with the passing of the Hunting Act 2004.

February 19


  • A new study on the timescale of plant evolution, led by the University of Bristol in England, has concluded that the first plants to colonise the Earth originated around 500 million years ago – 100 million years earlier than previously thought, as revealed on 19 February 2018.[30]

February 20


February 21


  • Scientists from the University of Bristol in England reported a formerly unappreciated sensory modality in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), detection of floral electric fields, on 21 February 2013 in the journal Science.[31]

February 22


  • An international team of researchers, including scientists from England, has revealed a new species of galago from Angola in a paper published by the American Journal of Physical Anthropology on 22 February 2017. The galago, which is the largest known dwarf galago or bushbaby, has been named the Angolan dwarf galago, named after the only country where it is known to occur.[32]
  • English actor Eddie Redmayne won the Best Actor Award at the 87th Academy Awards on 22 February 2015 for his performance in The Theory of Everything.[33]

February 23


  • English scientists and a team of international researches have found the first major evidence that Neanderthals made cave paintings, created more than 64,000 years ago – 20,000 years before modern humans arrived in Europe. The paintings in three caves in Spain, indicating they may have had an artistic sense similar to our own, were detailed in the journal Science on 23 February 2018.[34]
  • An international team of researchers, including scientists from England, has found evidence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance on the teeth of 1,000 year-old skeletons. Their study was published on 23 February 2014 in the journal Nature Genetics.[35]

February 24


February 25


February 26


February 27


  • A prototype quantum radar that has the potential to detect objects which are invisible to conventional systems has been developed by a team of English and international researchers. The new breed of radar, reported in Physical Review Letters on 27 February 2015, is a hybrid system that uses quantum correlation between microwave and optical beams to detect objects of low reflectivity such as cancer cells or aircraft with a stealth capability.[36]

February 28


  • The world's largest aircraft - part plane, part airship and part helicopter - was unveiled in Cardington, central England on 28 February 2014. It is 300ft (91m) long making it 60ft (18m) longer than the biggest airliners exist today.[37]

February 29



March

March 1


  • Scientists from England and their international colleagues have discovered the remains of microorganisms in Quebec, Canada that are at least 3.77 billion years old, providing direct evidence of one of the oldest life forms on Earth. Their findings were published in the journal Nature on 1 March 2017.[38]
  • An international team of researchers, including English scientists, has for the first time identified a gene called IRF4 responsible for greying hair. Their study published in Nature Communications on 1 March 2016 confirms greying has a genetic component and is not just environmental.[39]

March 2


  • A study by English and Australian researchers on how climate change has affected emperor penguins over the last 30,000 years found that only three populations may have survived during the last ice age, as reported on 2 March 2015.[40]

March 3


March 4


  • Electrical signals transmitted at high frequencies lose none of their energy when passed through graphene, a study led by English researchers at the Plymouth University has shown. The study, was announced on 4 March 2016, can be exploited in developing high-speed and efficient low noise amplifiers, mixers, radiation detectors and novel bio-sensors.[41]
  • A study published on 4 March 2013 in the Journal of Dental Research by English and Japanese researchers demonstrated the possibility of growing new teeth on patient's jaw from the combination of human gum tissue and tooth stem cells taken from a mouse embryo.[42]

March 5


  • Canadian and English researchers discovered the fossil remains of a 3.5-million-year-old camel on Ellesmere Island in Canada's northernmost territory, Nunavut. The camel was about 30 percent bigger than modern camels and was identified using a technique called collagen fingerprinting. The findings were detailed on 5 March 2013 in the journal Nature Communications.[43]

March 6


  • Brain researchers Peter Dayan and Ray Dolan from the University College London and Wolfram Schultz from the University of Cambridge jointly won the Brain Prize 2017 for explaining how learning is associated with the reward system of the brain.

March 7


March 8


March 9


  • A team of researchers from England, South Korea and Denmark has found fossilized brains of a sea creature, named Kerygmachela kierkegaardi, that lived from approximately 521 to 514 million years ago. Their study was published in the journal Nature Communications on 9 March 2018.[44]
  • On 9 March 2012 the British Film Institute announced the rediscovery of the oldest surviving film, The Death of Poor Joe, based on the works of Charles Dickens - one of the greatest English writers. The 1901 film is just over one minute long and was found by Bryony Dixon while she was researching early films of China.[45]

March 10


  • African elephants are able to identify humans that pose a threat to them by distinguishing between the language and voices of different ethnic groups, according to a study published by English and Kenyan researchers on 10 March 2014 in the journal PLoS ONE.[46]

March 11


  • England retained their Six Nations rugby union title and equalled New Zealand's world record for 18 consecutive Test wins with a 61-21 victory over Scotland on 11 March 2017.[47]
  • A team of researchers from England, New Zealand and Australia has found evidence that the steam and heat from volcanoes and heated rocks allowed many species of plants and animals to survive past ice ages, helping scientists understand how species respond to climate change. Their study was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA on 11 March 2014.[48]

March 12


  • A team of international scientists, including researchers from England, has discovered a vast reservoir of water under the Earth's mantle, 400-600 kilometers (250-375 miles) beneath the Earth’s surface. Their study, confirmed the finding based on the discovery of a rare mineral ringwoodite, was published in the journal Nature on 12 March 2014.[49]

March 13


  • England won the Rugby Six Nations Championship on 13 March 2016 for the first time since 2011 with a game to spare.
  • William Herschel, a British astronomer, discovered the planet Uranus on 13th March 1781 with a telescope. It is known as the first planet to discover with a telescope as opposed to the naked eye.[50]

March 14


March 15


  • By analysing a prehistoric site in the Libyan desert, a team of English and Italian researchers has been able to establish that people in Saharan Africa were cultivating and storing wild cereals 10,000 years ago, as reported on 15 March 2018.[51]
  • English mathematician Sir Andrew J. Wiles was awarded the 2016 Abel Prize by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters for his stunning proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem by way of the modularity conjecture for semistable elliptic curves, opening a new era in number theory.[52]
  • English F1 driver Lewis Hamilton won the season-opening Australian Grand Prix on 15 March 2015 in a perfect start for his Formula One world championship defense.[53]
  • In a world first - surgeons at the King’s College Hospital in London have performed successful liver transplants on two patients using a revolutionary technique which keeps the organ warm and functioning while outside the body - a donated human liver has been 'kept alive' outside a human being and then successfully transplanted into a patient in need of a new liver, according to an official announcement on 15 March 2013.[54]

March 16


March 17


March 18


  • English teacher Andria Zafirakou, from the Alperton Community College of Brent in one of the UK's poorest areas, won the $1 million Global Teacher Prize on 18 March 2018.
  • Marine biologists have, for the first time, found a whale skeleton on the ocean floor near Antarctica, giving new insights into life in the sea depths. The discovery was made almost a mile below the surface in an undersea crater and includes the find of at least nine new species of deep-sea organisms thriving on the bones, according to a study published by English scientists in 2013.[55]
  • British Formula One driver Jenson Button won the 2012 season-opening Australian Grand Prix on 18 March 2012.[56]

March 19


  • An astonishing image of a pregnant pony's uterus taken by Anatomy Museum of the Royal Veterinary College in London was named the overall winner of the 2015 Wellcome Image Awards. The awards celebrate the most informative, striking and technically excellent scientific images.[57]

March 20


March 21


  • Brian Jones from England and Bertrand Piccard from Switzerland were the first to fly nonstop around the world in a balloon. Their Breitling Orbiter 3 balloon left Château-d'Oex, Switzerland, on March 1, 1999 and landed on March 21 in the Egyptian desert 300 miles (482 kilometers) south of Cairo.[58]

March 22


  • Professor Caroline Dean of England received the 2018 L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Award from European region for her groundbreaking research on how plants adapt to their surroundings and climate change, leading to new ways for crop improvement.[59]
  • English scientists and a team of international researchers have found that single microorganisms in the human gut have the ability to disassemble the most complex of carbohydrates in our diet. Their findings were published in the journal Nature on 22 March 2017.[60]

March 23


March 24


March 25


  • Scientists at the University of East Anglia have made an important breakthrough in the quest to generate clean electricity from bacteria. Findings published on 25 March 2013 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) show that proteins on the surface of bacteria can produce an electric current by simply touching a mineral surface.[61]

March 26


March 27


  • Researchers from England, France and Germany have developed optical fiber cable that can transmit data at 99.7% the speed of light. Their findings were published in the journal Nature Photonics on 27 March 2013 are expected to increase the speed of the Internet.[62]

March 28


March 29


March 30


  • A graphene light bulb with lower energy emissions, longer lifetime and lower manufacturing costs was unveiled by the English scientists on 30 March 2015, expected to perform significantly better than traditional LED bulbs.[63]
  • An international research team, including scientists from England, has identified a specific gene fault which causes a hereditary form of melanoma. Their study, could lead to improved prevention, detection and treatment, was published in the journal Nature Genetics on 30 March 2014.[64]
  • English Formula One racing driver Lewis Hamilton won his first Malaysian Grand Prix on 30 March 2014.[65]

March 31



April

April 1


  • English archaeologists have discovered one of Britain’s largest medieval hospital cemeteries, containing over 1,000 human remains, beneath Cambridge University in England, as reported on 1 April 2015.[66]
  • Changes in the biochemical balance of the ocean were a crucial factor in the end-Triassic mass extinction, during which half of all plant, animal and marine life on Earth perished, according to new research published on 1 April 2015 by English researchers and their international colleagues.[67]

April 2


  • The origin and history of modern lions have been revealed by a team of international scientists, including researchers from England. A genetic analysis of living lions and museum specimens confirms modern lions' most recent common ancestor lived around 124,000 years ago, according to their study published on 2 April 2014 in the journal BMC Evolutionary Biology.[68]

April 3


  • Brotherhood of Man, a British pop group, won the 1976 Eurovision Song Contest for the song Save Your Kisses For Me. The event took place on 3 April 1976 in the Netherlands.[69]

April 4


  • A genome assembly of donkey conducted by English researchers and their international colleagues has revealed clues on how it may have branched from horse, according to a study published in Science Advances on 4 April 2018.[70]
  • English fashion consultant Gok Wan received the prestigious Outstanding Achievement in Television Award at The 4th Asian Awards in London on 4 April 2014.[71]

April 5


  • English scientists have used a custom-made 3D printer to make living tissue-like material that could one day serve medical purposes, according to findings released on 5 April 2013 in the journal Science. The material is made up of thousands of connected water droplets, encapsulated within lipid films, that can carry out some of the functions of human cells.[72]

April 6


  • A new study by English and Australian researchers has isolated a gene controlling shape and size of spikelets in wheat in a breakthrough which could help breeders deliver yield increases in one of the world’s most important crops. Their study was published in the journal The Plant Cell on 6 April 2018.[73]
  • Scientists from England, Germany and Sweden have detected an atmosphere around an Earth-like planet GJ 1132b for the first time, as revealed on 6 April 2017. This marks the first detection of an atmosphere around an Earth-like planet other than Earth itself, and thus is a significant step on the path towards the detection of life outside our Solar System.[74]
  • A ban on showing tobacco products at the point of sale in small shops across the UK including England came into force on 6 April 2015.
  • A ban on the display of tobacco products by retailers came into force in England on 6 April 2012, hoping it will help curb the number of young people taking up smoking. Cigarettes and other products will have to be kept below the counter in large shops and supermarkets, while small outlets are exempt until 2015.[75]

April 7


  • A successful operation to separate conjoined twins, Hassan and Hussein Benhaffaf from Cork, was completed at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London. They were separated by surgeons in a 14-hour operation on April 7, 2010 that featured 20 doctors and specialist nurses led by Cork-born professor Dr Edward Kiely.[76]

April 8


  • English singer Sandie Shaw won the Eurovision Song Contest 1967 for the song Puppet On A String. The final took place on April 8, 1967 in Vienna, Austria.[77]

April 9


  • Analysis of a 205 million-year-old jaw bone of a prehistoric reptile by English researchers has concluded that it belongs to one of the biggest marine animals on record, called ichthyosaur. The animal lived 205 million years ago at the end of the Triassic Period, as revealed in their study in journal PLOS One on 9 April 2018.[78]
  • English scientist Stuart Parkin won the 2014 Millennium Technology Prize in recognition of his discoveries, which have enabled a thousand-fold increase in the storage capacity of magnetic disk drives.[79]

April 10


  • Danny Willett of England claimed his maiden golf major in the 2016 Masters at Augusta by three shots to become the first Briton to win the Masters for 20 years.[80]

April 11


April 12


  • English paleontologists and their international colleagues have uncovered 245-million-year-old fossils belonging to one of the earliest relatives of dinosaurs, named Teleocrater rhadinus. The discovery, published in Nature on 12 April 2017, filled a critical gap in the fossil record of dinosaur cousins and suggesting that some features thought to characterise dinosaurs evolved much earlier than previously thought.[81]
  • English scientists have discovered a new shrimp species off the coast of Panama and named the bright pink-clawed pistol shrimp as Synalpheus pinkfloydi, according to a paper published on 12 April 2017.[82]
  • Rana Dasgupta, a British-Indian novelist, won the prestigious Commonwealth Writers' Prize in 2010 for his outstanding novel Solo. The novel won both the regional and overall best-book prize.

April 13


April 14


April 15


April 16


  • English scientists have discovered an egg membrane protein, Juno, that facilitates fertilization in mammals. They reported the study in the journal Nature on 16 April 2014.[83]
  • English researchers have discovered a new section of the boundary wall of the ancient Roman port of Ostia, proving the city was much larger than previously estimated. The discovery was announced on 16 April 2014.[84]

April 17


  • English engineering company Rolls-Royce won its largest ever order, worth $9.2bn, to provide Trent 900 engines to Dubai based airline Emirates to power 50 Airbus A380 aircrafts that will enter service from 2016, as announced on 17 April 2015.[85]
  • English engineer John J. L. Morton from the London Centre for Nanotechnology along with an international team has demonstrated a quantum bit based on the nucleus of a single atom in silicon, promising dramatic improvements for data processing in ultra-powerful quantum computers of the future. Their findings were published on 17 April 2013 in the journal Nature.[86]

April 18


April 19


  • English photographer Alys Tomlinson won the 2018 Sony World Photographer of the Year Award for her series named Ex-Voto.

April 20


  • English novelist Charles Dickens’ historical novel A Tale of Two Cities was first published in 1859. It was published as a serial piece—that is, in weekly installments from April 20 to November 26, 1859. It has sold more than 200 million copies to date, making it the bestselling novel – in any genre – of all time.[87]

April 21


April 22


  • Chelsea and England footballer Fran Kirby was crowned the women's Professional Footballers' Association (PFA) Players' Player of the Year on 22 April 2018 at the 45th PFA Awards in London.

April 23


  • English footballer Lucy Bronze was crowned Professional Footballers' Association (PFA) Players’ Women’s Player of the Year at the 2017 PFA Awards in London for the second time in her career.[88]

April 24


  • Scientists from England and Spain have discovered that the larva of a common insect, Galleria mellonella, can eat plastic bags. Their discovery was detailed in the journal Current Biology on 24 April 2017.[89]

April 25


April 26


April 27


  • English female footballer Lucy Bronze was named the 2014 Professional Footballers’ Association (PFA) Women’s Player of the Year.
  • The fourth Summer Olympic Games were held in London, England in 1908. The competitions started on April 27, 1908. It was the first time Summer Olympic was held in London.[90]

April 28


April 29


  • English astronomers and their international colleagues have discovered a black hole, known as V404 Cygni - nearly 8000 light-years from Earth, that keeps rapidly swinging out jets of plasma clouds into space. The study was published on 29 April 2019 in the journal Nature.[91]
  • The wedding of Prince William, the elder son of Prince Charles and late Diana, and Catherine Middleton took place on April 29, 2011 at Westminster Abbey, London. The wedding was watched by a global television audience of over two billion and marked as one of the historical moments for the 1000-year-old English monarchy.[92]

April 30



May

May 1


  • An international team of biologists, including researchers from England, have identified a new bird species in China based on its distinctive song. The new bird, the Sichuan bush warbler, was discovered in five mountainous provinces in central China and was described in the Avian Research journal on 1 May 2015.[93]
  • The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, commonly referred to as the Great Exhibition of 1851 or the Crystal Palace Exhibition, was the first true world's fair. It was held in London, England from May 1 to October 15, 1851.[94]

May 2


  • University of Manchester and National University of Singapore researchers have shown possibilities of paint produced from wonder material Graphene that could power homes of the future. The breakthrough, published in the journal Science on 2 May 2013, could lead to electric energy that runs entire buildings generated by sunlight absorbed by its exposed walls.[95]

May 3


  • Katrina and the Waves, an English pop rock band based in Cambridge, England, won the 1997 Eurovision Song Contest for the song Love Shine A Light representing the United Kingdom.[96]
  • The first heart-transplant operation in Britain was successfully carried out in 1968 by Dr. Donald Ross at the National Heart Hospital in Marylebone, London. It took more than seven hours to complete by a team of 18 doctors and nurses.

May 4


  • Scientists from England and their international colleagues have discovered one of the last dinosaurs living in Africa, named Chenanisaurus barbaricus, before their extinction 66 million years ago in a phosphate mine in northern Morocco, as revealed on 4 May 2017.[97]
  • Margaret Thatcher was elected as the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, as was of England, in 1979. She was the first woman elected ruler in Europe.[98]

May 5


  • Stuart Bingham of England won the 2015 World Snooker Championship beating Shaun Murphy 18-15 in the final on 5 May 2015.[99]
  • English professional snooker player Mark Selby won his first World Championship title on 5 May 2014 beating fellow countryman Ronnie O’Sullivan 18-14 in a quite extraordinary final.

May 6


  • Britain's Queen Elizabeth II and French President François Mitterand formally opened the Channel Tunnel, an undersea rail tunnel linking England and France, on May 6, 1994. The 31 mile or 50 kilometer long tunnel is considered as one of the world's great technological achievements.
  • English athlete Roger Bannister became the first person to run a mile in less than four minutes. His 3 min. 59.4 sec run took place in Oxford on May 6, 1954.[100]

May 7


May 8


May 9


  • Researchers from England have broken down DNA of world's largest mammals to discover how whales defy the cancer odds. Their findings were published on 9 May 2019 in Molecular Biology and Evolution.[101]
  • London in England was named as the world's best student city for the first time, according to the fifth edition of the QS Best Student Cities Ranking published on 9 May 2018.

May 10


May 11


May 12


May 13


  • English climber, Alison Hargreaves reached the summit of Mount Everest on May 13, 1995. It was her solo expedition without supplemental oxygen. She was the first woman to achieve that glory.[102]

May 14


May 15


  • English scientists have detected the first evidence that high-energy particles in the solar wind may increase lightning rates. The findings were reported on 15 May 2014 in the journal Environmental Research Letters.[103]
  • English and Canadian scientists have discovered water dating back 2.6 billion years, by far the oldest ever found on the planet, in a Canadian mine. Their findings were published on 15 May 2013 in the journal Nature.[104]

May 16


  • Renowned English mountaineer Kenton Cool made his 13th visit to the top of the Mount Everest on 16 May 2018, extending his record for most climbs by anyone from the UK.
  • Researchers at the University of Oxford and the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have found the first conclusive evidence of the existence of cancer stem cells in humans, in a discovery which could put an end to years of scientific controversy and pave the way for more effective cancer treatments which could attack the disease at the root. Their findings were reported on 16 May 2014 in the journal Cancer Cell.[105]

May 17


  • A team of English and international astronomers have detected the most distant known source of oxygen in a galaxy of stars called MACS1149-JD1 13.28 billion light years away formed only 250 million years after the Big Bang. Their findings were reported in the journal Nature on 17 may 2018.[106]

May 18


  • Helen Sharman became Britain's first astronaut, on an eight-day mission aboard a Soviet spacecraft with two cosmonauts. She spent most of her time at the Soviet space station Mir and carried out a series of medical and agricultural experiments.[107]

May 19


  • An international team of astronomers from England, Chile and the USA have found evidence of ice and comets orbiting a nearby sun-like star named HD 181327, which could give a glimpse into how our own solar system developed, as revealed on 19 May 2016.[108]
  • English football club Chelsea F.C. claimed their first Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League title on 19 May 2012 defeating German club FC Bayern Munich 4-3 on penalties after the teams finished the regulation and extra time at 1-1.[109]

May 20


  • A team of English and Argentine researchers has found evidence of a dinosaur, named Mussaurus patagonicus, that walked on all fours when it was young and then switched to walking on two legs as it grew to adulthood. Their findings were published in the journal Scientific Reports on 20 May 2019.[110]
  • A diet that combines unsaturated fats with nitrite-rich vegetables, such as olive oil and lettuce, can protect you from hypertension, suggests a new study by English scientists reported on 20 May 2014.[111]

May 21


  • English researchers have discovered 425-million-year-old fossils of a new species of parasite, named Invavita piratica, which means an ‘ancient intruder’ and ‘piracy’, referring to its parasitic lifestyle in the sea. The well preserved fossil species was described in the journal Current Biology on 21 May 2015.[112]
  • England won the 2014 UEFA European Under-17 Championship, beating the Netherlands on penalties 4-1 after a 1-1 draw.[113]
  • Early humans living in South Africa during the Middle Stone Age may have made advances in culture and technology during periods of wetter weather, indicating climate change promoted human development, according to a study published by English and Spanish researchers on 21 May 2013 in the journal Nature Communications.[114]
  • Aminatta Forna, a British writer, won the prestigious Commonwealth Writers' Prize 2011 in Overall Best Book category for her book "The Memory of Love". The winners of the 2011 Commonwealth Writers’ Prize were announced on 21 May 2011 at The Sydney Writers' Festival in Sydney.
  • David Mitchell, a British novelist, won the prestigious Commonwealth Writers' Prize (Best Book - South Asia and Europe) in 2011 for his novel “The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet”. The novel revolves around the story of a Dutch trader's love for a Japanese midwife during the late eighteenth century.

May 22


  • English film director Ken Loach won the Palme d'Or at the 69th Cannes Film Festival for his film I, Daniel Blake on 22 May 2016.
  • Robot “fish” developed by European scientists to improve pollution monitoring moved from the lab to the sea in a test at the northern Spanish port of Gijon on 22 May 2012. The project to build robotic fish is led by London based scientist Luke Speller aimed to monitor and search for pollution in ports and other aquatic areas.[115]

May 23


May 24


  • British aviator Amy Johnson became the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia on May 24, 1930. Her 8,600 mile flight took 19.5 days in her aircraft named Jason.[116]

May 25


  • English actress Emily Beecham won the Best Actress Prize at the Cannes film festival on 25 May 2019 for her performance in Little Joe.[117]

May 26


May 27


  • Professor Sir Michael Marmot of England was presented with the Ihsan Doğramacı Family Health Foundation Prize on 27 May 2016 during the plenary meeting of the World Health Assembly.[118]
  • English and Congolese scientists on 27 May 2014 announced the discovery of a vast peatland about the size of England in the Republic of the Congo.[119]

May 28


  • Professor Steven A Balbus from the University of Oxford on 28 May 2013 was announced the co-winner of the Hong Kong based Shaw Prize for his study of the magnetorotational instability, and for demonstrating that this instability leads to turbulence and is a viable mechanism for angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks.[120]

May 29


  • English astronomers and their international colleagues have found a rare exoplanet, named as NGTS-4b, as revealed on 29 May 2019. The planet is three times the size of Earth and 20% smaller than Neptune and the planet has its own atmosphere.
  • English researchers in Kenya have uncovered fossilized animal tracks, which they believe may have been left by swimming hippos 1.4 million years ago, as reported on 29 May 2014.[121]
  • John O’Keefe of England, Brenda Milner of Canada and Marcus E. Raichle of the USA jointly won the prestigious 2014 Kavli Prize in Neuroscience for the discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition.

May 30


  • English scientists have recently, for the first time, extracted full nuclear genome data from ancient Egyptian mummies. The study, published on 30 May 2017 in Nature Communications, found that ancient Egyptians were most closely related to ancient populations from the Near East.[122]

May 31


  • The world's first ever Eeva baby, a baby girl who was born with the help of Eeva technology which allows doctors to choose the healthiest embryos for IVF treatment, was born on 31 May 2013 at the Hewitt Fertility Centre at the Liverpool Women's Hospital - thanks to groundbreaking research at the hospital.[123]


June

June 1


  • A team of international and English scientists has discovered dunes on Pluto, likely to have been formed of methane ice grains released into its rarefied atmosphere. Their findings were published in Science on 1 Jun 2018.[124]
  • English researchers and a team of international scientists have developed a new way to grow mineralised materials which could regenerate hard tissues such as dental enamel and bone. The study, published in Nature Communications on 1 June 2018, shows that this new approach can create materials with remarkable precision.[125]

June 2


June 3


June 4


June 5


  • English and Egyptian archaeologist have unearthed nearly 8 million mummified dogs in the ancient Egyptian capital Memphis. Their findings were described in the journal Antiquity on 5 June 2015.[126]

June 6


  • Spider silk transmits vibrations across a wide range of frequencies so that, when plucked like a guitar string, its sound carries information about prey, mates, and even the structural integrity of a web. The discovery, by English and Scottish researchers who fired bullets and lasers at spider silk to study how it vibrates, was published on 6 June 2014.[127]
  • Archaeologists in London have unearthed the remains of William Shakespeare's Curtain Theatre, where his plays Henry V and Romeo and Juliet were first performed, according to Museum of London's announcement on 6 June 2012.

June 7


  • Scientists from England and a team of international researchers have discovered the oldest fossils of Homo Sapiens in Morocco that show Homo sapiens emerged at least 100,000 years earlier than previously recognised. Their findings were published in the journal Nature on 7 June 2017.[128]

June 8


June 9


June 10


  • English Formula One racing driver Lewis Hamilton won the 2012 Canadian Grand Prix in 1hr 32mins 29.586secs representing McLaren racing team.[129]

June 11


June 12


June 13


  • London based novelist Jon McGregor was announced as the winner of the 2012 International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award for his novel Even the Dogs. The €100,000 prize is one of the richest literary prizes in the world.

June 14


  • Scientists at the University of Liverpool along with their international colleagues have shed new light on how diving mammals, such as the sperm whale, have evolved to survive for long periods underwater without breathing. The team identified a distinctive molecular signature of the oxygen-binding protein myoglobin in the sperm whale and other diving mammals, which allowed them to store enough oxygen to hold their breath for up to an hour. Their findings were published on 14 June 2013 in the journal Science.[130]
  • English mathematician Charles Babbage presented his famous "difference engine", to perform mathematical calculation, to the Royal Astronomical Society on June 14, 1822. It is considered as the first computer design in science.[131]

June 15


June 16


  • A new law in England and Wales made it a criminal offence to force people into marriage. From 16 June 2014, parents who force their children to marry can be punished by up to seven years in prison.[132]
  • English golfer Justin Rose won the 2013 U.S. Open tournament for his first major championship victory and ended England’s 43-year drought at U.S. Open.

June 17


  • English scientists have found that 3D motion signals separate into two ‘pathways’ in the brain at an early stage of the image transmission between the eyes and the brain. The research is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on 17 June 2019.[133]

June 18


  • Researchers from the University of Oxford in England have completed the first successful trial of robot-assisted eye surgery, as revealed on 18 June 2018.[134]

June 19


  • England cricket team made the highest one-day international total in history as they scored 481-6 in 50 overs against Australia, eclipsing their own record of 444-3 against Pakistan, on 19 June 2018 winning the match by 242 runs.

June 20


June 21


  • English and Argentine scientists studying the 15th Century Voynich manuscript, has been described as the world's most mysterious book, have found linguistic patterns in the book that could lead to meaningful words being discovered within text. Their study was published in the journal Plos One on 21 June 2013.[135]

June 22


June 23


  • Researchers from England and their international colleagues have reported that there was flowing water on Mars 500,000 years ago. Their study was published in Nature Communications on 23 June 2015.[136]

June 24


June 25


  • English and Australian researchers have discovered morpheme gene in poppies, paving the way for more effective painkillers. The morpheme gene that the researchers discovered in poppies was called STORR and was detailed in the journal Science on 25 June 2015.[137]

June 26


  • A team of English and international researchers has discovered genes responsible for early onset Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome. Their findings were published in the journal Brain on 26 June 2018.[138]

June 27


  • English scientists have discovered how plants create networks of air channels -- the lungs of the leaf -- to transport carbon dioxide (CO2) to their cells. Their research was published in Nature Communications on 27 June 2019.[139]
  • A team of international scientists, including researchers from England, has discovered the oldest animal-built reef in southern Namibia, in a region known for its ancient sediments. Their findings were published in the journal Science on 27 June 2014.[140]

June 28


  • The Emirates Air Line cable-car system, built with sponsorship from the air carrier Emirates, is the first urban cable car service of its kind in Britain, link across the River Thames in London opened on 28 June 2012.[141]

June 29


  • Placental mammals – a group that today includes nearly 5000 species including humans – evolved three times faster in the 10 million years after the extinction of the dinosaurs than in the previous 80 million years, according to a study published by English researchers on 29 June 2016.[142]

June 30


  • English and American researchers have found the first clear evidence that the thinning in the ozone layer above Antarctica is starting to heal. The scientists on 30 June 2015 revealed in the journal Science that in September 2015 the hole was around 4 million sq km smaller than it was in the year 2000.[143]


July

July 1


  • A smoking ban in all enclosed public places in England came into force on 1 July 2007. The new law is intended to cut deaths from second-hand smoke.[144]
  • English naturalist Charles Darwin announced his theory of evolution to the Linnean Society in London on July 1, 1858.

July 2


  • A team of English and international scientists has made a significant break-through by successfully sequencing the full koala genome for the first time. The findings were published on 2 July 2018 in Nature Genetics.[145]

July 3


July 4


  • The London Array, an offshore wind farm in the Thames Estuary, was officially opened as the world’s largest offshore wind farm on 4 July 2013.[146]

July 5


  • The Shard, a skyscraper in London, was officially inaugurated on 5 July 2012 as the tallest building in Europe and the tallest habitable free-standing structure in the UK at 309.6 metres (1,016 ft).[147]

July 6


July 7


July 8


  • Scientists from England and Slovakia have produced a series of intricate hand-drawn recreations of the cranial structure of Gephyrostegus, which is a 308-million-year-old lizard-like vertebrate that could potentially be the earliest example of a reptile. Their results are detailed in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology on 8 July 2014.[148]

July 9


July 10


  • A team of English and international researchers has identified a 210,000-year-old skull in Greece as the earliest modern human remains found outside Africa, putting the clock back on mankind's arrival in Europe by more than 150,000 years, as published in the journal Nature on 10 July 2019.[149]
  • Scientists from England and an international team have observed in unprecedented detail the birth of a massive star within a dark cloud core about 10,000 light years from Earth, astronomers' best observation yet of a massive star embryo growing within a dark cloud. Their findings were published on 10 July 2013 in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics.[150]

July 11


  • English astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope along with an international team of researchers have, for the first time, determined the true color of a planet outside our solar system. If seen up close this planet, known as HD 189733b, would be a deep cobalt blue, reminiscent of Earth’s color as seen from space. Their findings were published on 11 July 2013 in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.[151]
  • Four University of Exeter students on 11 July 2013 won $50,000 as the first-place winners of the Microsoft Imagine Cup Innovation Competition with their mobile phone application “soundSYNK,” which creates impromptu social networks that allow people to stream music simultaneously through a group of phones, effectively creating a symphony of speakers.
  • England was the proud organizer of 1966 soccer world cup started on 11th July.
  • Charlotte Cooper, a tennis player from Middlesex - England, won gold medal in Women's singles tennis at the 1900 Summer Olympics. She was the first woman to win an Olympic medal and this was the first time women were allowed to participate at the Olympics.

July 12


  • English astronomers and a team of international researchers have discovered a star about the size of Saturn – the smallest ever measured. The newly-measured star, called EBLM J0555-57Ab, is located about six hundred light years away, as revealed on 12 July 2017.[152]

July 13


July 14


  • England won their first ever ODI Cricket World Cup beating New Zealand in the final at Lord's on 14 July 2019. Both sides scored 241 in their 50 overs and were level on 15 when they batted for a super over apiece. England were crowned world champions by virtue of having scored more boundary fours and sixes - 26 to New Zealand's 17 - in the entire match.

July 15


July 16


  • A team of English and international scientists has suggested that the rise of ceramic production was closely linked with intensified fishing at the end of the last Ice Age. The study, examined 800 earliest known pottery remains, was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on 16 July 2018.[153]
  • A 520-million-year-old well-preserved sea monster, dubbed Lyrarapax unguispinus, was unearthed in China. The fossils of the new species were so well preserved that the nervous system and parts of the brain were still clearly defined and reported by English, Chinese and American researchers in the journal Nature on 16 July 2014.[154]
  • English scientists on 16 July 2013 reported they had harnessed the power of urine and were able to charge a mobile phone with enough electricity to send texts and surf the Internet. Their study was published in the Royal Society of Chemistry journal Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics.[155]

July 17


  • English scientists have developed a highly advanced bird song decoder, which can automatically identify the call of a vast variety of birds. Their findings were published in the Journal PeerJ on 17 July 2014.[156]
  • Scientists at Imperial College London have created an "intelligent" surgical knife, dubbed the iKnife, that can detect whether tissue being cut is cancerous, promising more effective and accurate surgery in future. The findings were published on 17 July 2013 in the journal Science Translational Medicine.[157]

July 18


July 19


July 20


  • English, Dutch and American researchers have presented a new map of the human brain characterizing 97 previously undiscovered areas, as published in the journal Nature on 20 July 2016.[158]

July 21


  • Chris Froome, representing English cycling team "Team Sky" from Manchester, won the 100th Tour de France title on 21 July 2013 after finishing more than four minutes ahead of his closest rival in the final stage in Paris.[159]

July 22


  • Bradley Wiggins became the first British professional bicycle racer to win the Tour de France by safely protecting the yellow jersey during the final ride in Paris on 22 July 2012.[160]

July 23


  • England won its fourth Women's Cricket World Cup in a thrilling finish over India on 23 July 2017 winning the final by 9 runs.
  • English cyclist Chris Froome won his fourth Tour de France title representing Team Sky on 23 July 2017.[161]

July 24


  • English F1 driver Lewis Hamilton recorded his fifth Hungarian Grand Prix win on 24 July 2016 in Budapest.[162]
  • English and German scientists have discovered the first known fossil of a four-legged snake, as detailed on 24 July 2015 in the journal Science. The fossil, from Brazil, dates back more than 110 million years and was found in a collection in a German museum.[163]

July 25


  • The first ever example of a plant-eating dinosaur with feathers and scales, named Kulindradromeus zabaikalicus, has been discovered in Russia. The finding could mean that feathered dinosaurs were widespread than previously thought, as English scientists reported in the journal Science on 25 July 2014 in collaboration with a team of international researchers.[164]
  • Louise Joy Brown, world's first successful "test-tube" baby, was born in Manchester, England on July 25, 1978. It was a day of triumph for the British medical science.[165]

July 26


  • English and Swiss scientists have discovered an approximately 3,000-year-old lunchbox containing traces of cereal in the Swiss Alps that may have been used by a prehistoric settler for sustenance as he made the grueling climb across the Swiss mountains. Their findings were detailed in the journal Scientific Reports on 26 July 2017.[166]

July 27


  • England's Laura Trott won gold in the women's 25KM points race at the 2014 Commonwealth Games despite being laid low with a kidney infection.[167]
  • The 2012 Summer Olympic Games officially kicked off on 27 July 2012 with a sparkling opening ceremony in London. It was for the third time that the great city of London welcomed the Summer Olympic.[168]

July 28


July 29


  • English Formula One racing driver Lewis Hamilton took his second victory of the season at the Hungarian Grand Prix on 29 July 2012 with a dominating performance.[169]
  • The 1948 Summer Olympic Games were held in London, England from July 29 to August 14. After a 12-year break due to World War II, the Games returned triumphantly to London. It was the second Summer Olympic held in London.[170]

July 30


  • An international team of scientists, including researchers from England, have discovered the first aurora ever seen in an object beyond our Solar System. The aurora - reported on 30 July 2015 in the journal Nature - was spotted around a brown dwarf star called LSRJ 1835+3259 about 18 light years away.[171]
  • England won the 1966 soccer world cup. It is the first and only time England won the soccer world cup till the time of this writing (2010). England beat West Germany 4-2 in the final.[172]

July 31


  • The remains of two large 6000-year-old halls, each buried within a prehistoric burial mound, have been discovered by archaeologists from The University of Manchester and Herefordshire Council, according to an official announcement on 31 July 2013. The sensational finds on Dorstone Hill, near Peterchurch in Herefordshire, were thought to be constructed between 4000 and 3600 BC.[173]
  • For the first time the complex interplay between bacterial investment strategies and their outcomes has been recreated and analysed by English and Australian researchers. The study is published on 31 July 2013 in the journal Ecology Letters. The breakthrough was in using synthetic biology to create identical bacteria but with fixed investment strategies, some investing in growth, some in stress resistance and others in both to various degrees.[174]
  • British government banned cigarette advertising on television in 1965. Britain's last television commercials for cigarettes were screened on the night of 31 July 1965.


August

August 1


  • The scientists, based at the University of Leeds, announced the discovery of the world's first active undersea river on August 1, 2010. Researchers of this project working in the Black Sea found currents of water 350 times greater than the River Thames flowing along the sea bed, carving out channels much like a river on the land.[175]

August 2


  • English scientists and a team of international researchers have found the strongest evidence to date for a stratosphere on an enormous planet WASP-121b outside our solar system, with an atmosphere hot enough to boil iron. Their findings were reported in the journal Nature on 2 August 2017.[176]
  • A British robotic sub, Autosub6000, has photographed a vast tract of deep ocean floor some 560km southwest of Land's End – some half a million photos that will be stitched together to form a ‘street view’ map of the North Atlantic’s Porcupine Abyssal Plain and its inhabitants, according to an official announcement on 2 August 2012.[177]

August 3


  • England topped the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games medal table with 58 gold, 59 silvers and 57 bronzes.[178]

August 4


  • A new species of spider found only on one island in Queensland, Australia was named after the British naturalist and broadcaster Sir David Attenborough on 4 August 2012 for his love of nature and renowned ability to make science accessible.[179]

August 5


August 6


  • English and Swiss scientists have identified a new species of dinosaur in Venezuela, named Laquintasaura Venezuela, with the help of its 200-million-year-old fossilized bones. It is the first new dinosaur species found in northern South America, as announced on 6 August 2014.
  • The World Wide Web, a global information medium on the Internet, was introduced by British engineer Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1991.[180]

August 7


  • The Greater Gabbard offshore wind farm, capable of generating enough electricity to power over half a million homes, was opened as the world’s second-largest wind farm off England's east coast on 7 August 2013.[181]

August 8


  • England cricket team won the Ashes beating Australia by an innings and 78 runs on the third day of the fourth Test at Trent Bridge on 8 August 2015.[182]

August 9


August 10


August 11


  • Mohamed Farah of Britain won Olympic gold medal on 11 August 2012 with a thrilling victory in the men’s 5000m, his second long-distance running victory at the London Games.[183]

August 12


  • English and Sudanese researchers have discovered a 2,000-year-old cemetery with several underground tombs near the Nile River in Sudan, as announced on 12 August 2014.[184]

August 13


  • An international team of scientists, including researchers from England, has uncovered unique inscriptions in a cave in China that describe how droughts affected the local population over the past five centuries, and underline the importance of implementing strategies to deal with climate change in the coming years. Their findings were presented in the journal Scientific Reports on 13 August 2015.[185]
  • Scientist Martin Hairer from the University of Warwick, England was awarded the 2014 Fields Medal, the most prestigious honor in mathematics, for his outstanding contributions to the theory of stochastic partial differential equations, and in particular created a theory of regularity structures for such equations.

August 14


  • English scientists reversed ageing process in rat brain stem cells, according to their research published in Nature on 14 August 2019.[186]
  • Researchers from England and an international team have discovered two new species of bone-devouring worms thriving on the icy-cold seafloor of the Southern Ocean. The new species, named Osedax antarcticus and Osedax deceptionensis, that dine on decaying whale skeletons are described on 14 August 2013 in the Royal Society journal Proceedings B.[187]
  • Researchers from England and an international team have set out the first comprehensive map of mutational processes behind the development of tumors - work that should in future lead to better ways to treat and prevent a wide range of cancers. Their study, published on 14 August 2013 in the journal Nature, discovered the genetic imprints and signatures left by DNA-damaging processes that lead to cancer.[188]

August 15


  • Conjoined twin girls born with the tops of their heads fused together have been separated in a rare and risky series of operations at London's Great Ormond Street hospital. Eleven-month-old Rital and Ritag Gaboura who are from Sudan were flown to Britain for the surgery which took place in four stages, with two operations in May, one in July and the final one on 15 August 2011.[189]

August 16


August 17


  • England rugby team was crowned champions after beating first-time finalists Canada 21-9 in the Women's Rugby World Cup 2014 title decider in Paris.

August 18


August 19


August 20


August 21


August 22


  • The first experimental television programme produced by the BBC was broadcast on 22 August 1932 from studio BB in the basement of Broadcasting House, headquarters of the BBC.

August 23


  • English, French and Italian scientists have discovered that the ancient harbour of Pisa, Portus Pisanus, was established around 200 BCE in a naturally protected lagoon that was connected with the Ligurian Sea. Their findings were published in the journal Scientific Reports on 23 August 2018.[190]
  • English acclaimed author Jim Crace and renowned biographer Hermione Lee were named as the winners of the UK's oldest literary awards, James Tait Black Prizes, on 23 August 2014.[191]

August 24


August 25


  • On 25 August 1919, British Airways' forerunner company, Aircraft Transport and Travel Limited (AT&T), launched the world's first daily international scheduled air service between London and Paris.[192]

August 26


August 27


  • Researchers from England, Sweden and Wales have used GPS data to reveal the mathematical secrets of how sheepdogs do their job. The new model, published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface on 27 August 2014, helps to explain why one shepherd and a single dog can herd an unruly flock of more than 100 sheep.[193]

August 28


  • Scientists from England and Germany have discovered the largest Ichthyosaurus on record and found it was pregnant at the time of death. The new specimen is estimated to be between 3 and 3.5 m long and roughly 200 million years old, as revealed in the scientific journal, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica on 28 August 2017.[194]

August 29


  • English endurance swimmer Lewis Pugh became the first person to complete long-distance swims in each of the classical seven seas - the Mediterranean, Adriatic, Aegean, Black, Red, Arabian, and North. Pugh completed his final swim to the Thames Barrier on 29 August 2014.
  • The opening ceremony of the fourteenth Summer Paralympic Games took place on 29 August 2012 in London. It was for the first time that London became the proud host of the Summer Paralympic.[195]

August 30


  • England women won the 2015 European hockey title beating the Netherlands 2-2 (3-1 after shoot-out) in the final.[196]

August 31



September

September 1


September 2


  • English Formula One driver Lewis Hamilton broke the all-time record for pole positions with his 69th career pole position at the 2017 Italian Grand Prix.
  • English and Finnish scientists have created renewable clean propane from the intestine bacterium Escherichia coli, paving the way for future research into alternatives fuels capable of replacing traditional and carbon-intensive sources of power. Their study was published in Nature Communications on 2 September 2014.[197]
  • English Formula One driver Jenson Button won the 2012 Belgian Grand Prix with a dominant performance at Spa for McLaren-Mercedes.[198]

September 3


  • English and German scientists have found a way to harness sunlight to make fuel by splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using sunlight, mimicking the mechanism of photosynthesis. The process paves the way for hydrogen to be captured and converted to electrical energy in a fuel cell, as revealed in the journal Nature on 3 September 2018.[199]
  • The Royal Mail in the United Kingdom launched the first intelligent postage stamp on 3 September 2010. Viewing the stamp via a Smartphone takes users to a related webpage. The application, work with image recognition technology, is another example of augmented reality in which real world scenes or situations are annotated and enhanced by pairing them with web-based data.[200]

September 4


  • England was voted as the world’s seventh most beautiful country by the influential travel publisher Rough Guide’s readers, as published on 4 September 2017.[201]
  • A ‘magic carpet’ which can immediately detect when someone has fallen and can help to predict mobility problems was demonstrated by University of Manchester scientists on 4 August 2012. Plastic optical fibres, laid on the underlay of a carpet, can bend when anyone treads on it and map, in real-time, their walking patterns.

September 5


  • Scientists from the UK, the US and Japan have discovered the single largest volcano in the world, a dead colossus deep beneath the Pacific waves, according to their researched published on 5 September 2013 in the journal Nature Geoscience.[202]

September 6


September 7


September 8


  • English musician Sir Paul McCartney was decorated with France's highest cultural award, the Legion of Honor, by French President Francois Hollande on 8 September 2012 for his services to music.[203]

September 9


September 10


  • English scientists have discovered three new species of fish, temporarily named the pink, the blue and the purple Atacama Snailfish, in the extreme depths of the Pacific Ocean. Their study was published in the journal Zootaxa on 10 September 2018.[204]

September 11


  • English and Japanese scientists have successfully ‘reset’ human pluripotent stem cells to the earliest developmental state – equivalent to cells found in an embryo before it implants in the womb (7-9 days old). The discovery, published in Cell on 11 September 2014, will lead to a better understanding of human development and could in future allow the production of safe and more reproducible starting materials for a wide range of applications including cell therapies.[205]
  • English scientists along with their international colleagues unearthed a giant fossil of the first ever semiaquatic dinosaur, Spinosaurus, in the Sahara desert. Their findings were published on 11 September 2014 in the journal Science.[206]

September 12


  • For the first time, scientists have improved hearing in deaf animals by using human embryonic stem cells, an encouraging step for someday treating people with certain hearing disorders. Results of the work, done in gerbils, were reported online on 12 September 2012 in the journal Nature by a team led by Dr. Marcelo Rivolta of the University of Sheffield in England.[207]
  • The world's first color moving pictures from 1901 have been unveiled by National Media Museum in Bradford, which just found the film in a discovery that does nothing less than "rewrite film history", on 12 September 2012.[208]

September 13


  • The University of Oxford's Professor Sir Peter Ratcliffe of England was named as one of the recipients of the prestigious 2016 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award. He was recognized for the discovery of the pathway by which cells from humans and most animals sense and adapt to changes in oxygen availability – a process essential for survival.[209]

September 14


September 15


September 16


  • English road and track racing cyclist Simon Yates secured the overall victory at the 73rd edition of the Tour of Spain on 16 September 2018.[210]

September 17


September 18


September 19


September 20


  • England was admitted as a member of the United Nations (UN) on 20 September 1977 as part of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

September 21


  • The University of Oxford in England on 21 September 2016 became the first British university ever to occupy the top position in the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings.[211]

September 22


September 23


September 24


  • English scientists have succeeded for the first time in wiping out an entire population of malaria-carrying mosquitos in the lab using a gene editing tool to programme their extinction. Their study was published on 24 September 2018 in Nature Biotechnology.[212]

September 25


September 26


September 27


  • London based initiative Campaign Against Arms Trade (CAAT) on 27 September 2012 won the Swedish Right Livelihood Award, honoring those who work to improve the lives of others, for their innovative and effective campaigning against the global trade in arms.

September 28


September 29


September 30



October

October 1


  • A University of Leeds-led research has used tree rings from eight cedar trees in Bolivia to unlock a 100-year history of rainfall across the Amazon basin. The new study shows that the rings in lowland tropical cedar trees provide a natural archive of data closely related to historic rainfall. The findings appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on 1 October 2012.[213]

October 2


October 3


  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018 was jointly awarded to Sir Gregory P. Winter of England and Frances H. Arnold and George P. Smith of the USA for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.[214]
  • United Kingdom (England) conducted its first nuclear test in 1952. On October 3, 1952 Hurricane, first British atomic device, was detonated in a lagoon off the western shore of Trimouille Island, Australia. United Kingdom was the third country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapon.[215]

October 4


  • Richard Henderson of England, Jacques Dubochet of Switzerland and Joachim Frank of the USA were awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution.[216]
  • English physicist Frederick Duncan Michael Haldane jointly won the 2016 Nobel Prize for Physics for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter.[217]
  • Robert G. Edwards, a British physiologist and pioneer in Reproductive medicine, was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the development of human in vitro fertilization (IVF) therapy. His achievements have made it possible to treat infertility, a medical condition afflicting a large proportion of humanity including more than 10% of all couples worldwide.

October 5


  • Author Kazuo Ishiguro from England was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Literature who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world.
  • The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2010 was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov from University of Manchester, UK. They were awarded for their groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material Graphene - a form of carbon. Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov have shown that carbon in such a flat form has exceptional properties that originate from the remarkable world of quantum physics.[218]

October 6


  • John O´Keefe from the University College London, England was awarded with one half of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, jointly with May‐Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser from Norway, for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain.

October 7


  • English scientists have used new data which indicates that the Earth’s inner core was formed 1 – 1.5 billion years ago as it “froze” from the surrounding molten iron outer core, as published in Nature on 7 October 2015.[219]
  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2002 was awarded jointly to British biologist John E. Sulston for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.

October 8


  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 was awarded jointly to British developmental biologist John B. Gurdon and Japanese physician Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent.[220]
  • British scientist Sir Martin J. Evans jointly won the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells.[221]

October 9


October 10


October 11


  • Scientists from England and Germany studying a broken-apart planet 150 light years away from Earth found signs of water and a rocky surface together for the first time beyond our Solar System. Their study was published on 11 October 2013 in the journal Science.[222]
  • Professor Christopher A. Pissarides from London School of Economics was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences on October 11, 2010. He won the prize jointly for his work on the economics of unemployment, especially job flows and the effects of being out of work.

October 12


October 13


  • English footballer Steph Houghton was included in the BBC global list of 100 inspirational and innovative women for 2017.
  • The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2005 was awarded to the English writer Harold Pinter who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms.[223]
  • The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 1995, in two equal parts, to Joseph Rotblat, a British and Polish physicist, and to the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms.[224]

October 14


  • English and American scientists discovered a 46-million-year-old mosquito fossil in a Montana riverbed so well-preserved that it still has blood in its stomach. They reported the finding on 14 October 2013 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.[225]
  • Frederick Sanger, a British scientist known for his research in DNA sequencing, jointly won The Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980 for his contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids. It is notable that Mr. Sanger won his first Nobel Prize also in Chemistry in 1958.

October 15


October 16


  • Researchers from England, Japan, China and the USA have discovered the earliest known complete nervous system exquisitely preserved in the fossilized remains of a never-before described creature that crawled or swam in the ocean 520 million years ago. The fossil, recently discovered in South China, was reported on 16 October 2013 in the journal Nature.[226]
  • English writer Hilary Mantel won the prestigious Man Booker Prize 2012 for her novel Bring Up the Bodies. Hilary became only the third author to win the prize twice.

October 17


  • The Bionic Man, the world's first walking, talking robot human made entirely of synthetic body parts, built by London's Shadow Robot Co made his debut at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum, Washington on 17 October 2013.[227]

October 18


  • English and Australian scientists have proposed that the most recently discovered ancient human relatives - the Denisovans - somehow managed to cross Wallace's Line, one of the world's most prominent marine barriers in Indonesia, and later interbred with modern humans moving through the area on the way to Australia and New Guinea. Their study was published on 18 October 2013 in the journal Science.[228]

October 19


  • British Engineers at Air Fuel Synthesis (AFS) in Teeside, northern England, have demonstrated a way to create petrol from air and water, according to an official announcement on 19 October 2012. It is hoped that the technology may one day contribute to large-scale production of green fuels.[229]

October 20


  • A paralyzed man has been able to walk again after a pioneering therapy that involved transplanting cells from his nasal cavity into his spinal cord. The treatment, a world first, was carried out by doctors in England and Poland and reported on 20 October 2014.

October 21


October 22


October 23


  • English and Bulgarian archaeologists have found what they believe to be the world’s oldest intact shipwreck at the bottom of the Black Sea where it appears to have lain undisturbed for more than 2,400 years, as revealed on 23 October 2018.[230]

October 24


  • Gladwyn Jebb, a British diplomat, served as the Acting Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) from 24th October 1945 to 1st February 1946. He was the first person to head UN until the appointment of the first Secretary-General. [231]

October 25


  • English Formula One driver Lewis Hamilton clinched his third F1 World Championship title with the 2015 US Grand Prix win and became only the tenth driver to win at least three world titles.[232]

October 26


October 27


  • Researchers at the Oxford University revealed, on 27 October 2011, that they have used world-first pioneering gene therapy in a bid to save a man's sight. It is the first time that anyone has tried to correct a genetic defect in the light-sensing cells that line the back of the eye.[233]

October 28


  • English driver Lewis Hamilton clinched his fifth Formula One world title with two races to spare by finishing fourth at the Mexican Grand Prix on 28 October 2018. Hamilton became just the third driver to win a fifth world title.[234]
  • English astronomers and their international colleagues have discovered an elusive new low-mass, low-density planet located 2,300 light years away from Earth with an atmosphere loaded with hydrogen and helium. The planet dubbed as PH3c was described in the Astrophysical Journal on 28 October 2014.[235]
  • English humanitarian Sir Nicholas Winton who saved 669 children, most of them Jews, from the Nazis was awarded the Czech Republic's highest state honor the Order of the White Lion on 28 October 2014.
  • Researchers from Imperial College London revealed they have developed a super-sensitive test using nano-particles to spot markers for cancer or the AIDS virus in human blood serum using the naked eye. The research was published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology on 28 October 2012.[236]

October 29


  • English driver Lewis Hamilton won his fourth Formula One World Championship on 29 October 2017 and became Britain's most successful racing driver of all time.[237]

October 30


October 31



November

November 1


November 2


  • English archaeologists have found the remains of a 14,000-year-old hunter-gather settlement offering great views over landscapes now drowned by the English Channel. The site, called Les Varines, is located in the Jersey parish of St Saviour and has produced over 5,000 scattered stone artefacts during the past five years of excavation, as announced on 2 November 2015.[238]

November 3


November 4


  • The tomb of Tutankhamun or King Tut, an Egyptian pharaoh, was discovered November 4, 1922 by an English archaeologist Howard Carter. King Tut’s tomb was a major discovery of the 19th century.[239]

November 5


  • In a world first, a new treatment that uses ‘molecular scissors’ to edit genes and create designer immune cells programmed to hunt out and kill drug resistant leukaemia has been used at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) in London, as announced on 5 November 2015.[240]
  • Fossilised bones unearthed by a British palaeontologist in colonial Tanzania in the 1930s may be those of the oldest dinosaur ever found, American and English researchers reported on 5 November 2012 in a research paper published in Biology Letters, a journal of Britain's Royal Society.

November 6


  • Archaeologists from the University of Cambridge have unearthed the earliest known European Christian church, dates back to late 15th century, in the tropics on one of the Cabo Verde islands, 500km off the coast of West Africa - where the Portuguese established a stronghold to start the first commerce with Africa, as announced on 6 November 2015.[241]

November 7


November 8


November 9


November 10


November 11


  • Scientists led by Dr. David Matthews from the University of Bristol's School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine studying the genes and proteins of human cells infected with a common cold virus have identified a new gene identification technique that could increase the genetic information we hold on animals by around 70 to 80 per cent. The findings were published on 11 November 2012 in the journal Nature Methods.[242]

November 12


  • Ann Sidney from England won the 14th Miss World contest on November 12, 1964 representing United Kingdom. It was the second Miss World title for United Kingdom after a Welsh beauty Rosemarie Frankland won the title back in 1961.[243]

November 13


November 14


  • England’s wicketkeeper-batter Sarah Taylor won the ICC Women’s ODI Cricketer of the Year award on 14 November 2014.

November 15


November 16


November 17


  • Sarah-Jane Hutt from England won the 33rd Miss World pageant, representing United Kingdom. It was held on 17 November 1983 in the Royal Albert Hall, London.[243]

November 18


  • English Formula One racing driver Lewis Hamilton won the U.S. Grand Prix on 18 November 2012 in the first Formula One race on American soil since 2007.[244]

November 19


  • English and Welsh researchers have unearthed 380 million years old ancient fossil forests in Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago situated in the Arctic Ocean, as announced on 19 November 2015.[245]
  • Cambridge University scientists have restored movement in the legs of paralysed pet dogs in a world first trial outside of a laboratory and are cautiously optimistic the technique could eventually have a role in the treatment of human patients, according to an official announcement on 19 November 2012.[246]
  • Lesley Langley from England won the 15th Miss World on November 19, 1965 representing United Kingdom. It was the third Miss World title for United Kingdom.[243]

November 20


November 21


  • A team of researchers from England, Germany, China and the USA have discovered an ancient, deep canyon buried along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in south Tibet, north of the eastern end of the Himalaya. The team reported their findings on 21 November 2014 in the journal Science Express.[247]

November 22


  • England won the 2003 Rugby World Cup. It is the first ever Rugby World Cup for England. They won the final 20-17 against Australia at the Telstra Stadium, Sydney, Australia.

November 23


  • English Formula One racing driver Lewis Hamilton clinched his second World Championship title after victory at the Abu Dhabi grand prix on 23 November 2014.[248]

November 24


November 25


  • English scientists from the University of Bristol have grown a man-made diamond that, when placed in a radioactive field, is able to generate a small electrical current. The development, as announced on 25 November 2016, could solve some of the problems of nuclear waste, clean electricity generation and battery life.[249]
  • Archaeologists from England, Nepal and Scotland have uncovered evidence of a structure at the birthplace of the Buddha in Nepal dating to the sixth century B.C. This is the first archaeological material linked the life of the Buddha to a specific century according to their study published on 25 November 2013 in the journal Antiquity.[250]
  • English Formula One driver Jenson Button won the 2012 Brazilian Grand Prix in 1hr, 45mins, 22.656secs representing McLaren racing team.[251]

November 26


November 27


November 28


November 29


  • English students secured the tenth place at the global maths and science ranking, according to the International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) released on 29 November 2016.[252]
  • English director Ken Loach on 29 November 2013 was announced as the recipient of the honorary Golden Bear prize for lifetime achievement at the upcoming 64th Berlin film festival.
  • A team of researchers from the University of Cambridge used a patient's own blood to make personalized stem cells, which doctors hope will eventually be used to treat a range of diseases. The research findings were published on 29 November 2012 in the journal Stem Cells: Translational Medicine.

November 30


  • The world's first official international soccer match was played on November 30, 1872. It was played between Scotland and England. The match kicked-off in Scotland and ended in a goalless draw.[253]


December

December 1


December 2


  • On December 2nd 1922, Edwin Belin demonstrated a mechanical scanning device that was an early predecessor to modern television.[254]

December 3


December 4


  • A team of International scientists, including English researchers, have discovered huge reserves of freshwater buried beneath the seabed on continental shelves off Australia, China, North America and South Africa. Their study was published on 4 December 2013 in the journal Nature.[255]

December 5


  • Long-distance telephone call, without the help of an operator, was inaugurated in United Kingdom, as was in England, on December 5, 1958. The first call was made by the Queen to the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, Scotland from the central telephone exchange in Bristol, England.[256]

December 6


December 7


  • English sailor Ian Williams won a record-equaling fourth ISAF Match Racing World Championship, a leading professional sailing series, on 7 December 2012.

December 8


December 9


December 10


  • Analysis of the skeleton of an early human ancestor by English researchers have suggested that humans learned to walk upright in the trees, as revealed on 10 December 2018.[257]
  • Austen Chamerlain a British statesman jointly won The Nobel Peace Prize in 1925 for his work related to the Locarno Pact, an agreement between the major European powers never to go to war and settle all differences through arbitration.[258]
  • The Nobel Peace Prize for 1903 was awarded to Randal Cremer from England for his contribution in promoting international arbitration, the International Peace Campaign and International Workers' Union.[259]

December 11


December 12


December 13


December 14


December 15


December 16


December 17


  • A team of scientists from England, Canada and the USA has discovered ancient, hydrogen-rich waters in Canada, South Africa and Scandinavia. The water, some of which is billions of years old, is found many kilometers beneath the ground, as presented in the journal Nature on 17 December 2014.[260]

December 18


  • English scientists have found that superbug Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, responsible for several infections in humans, can move contrary to popular belief of its static nature. Their finding published in Nature on 18 December 2015 is expected to have implications for future clinical treatments.[261]

December 19


  • English and Danish scientists have discovered a jet stream within the Earth’s molten iron core using the latest satellite data that helps create an ‘x-ray’ view of the planet. Their findings were published in the journal Nature Geoscience on 19 December 2016.[262]

December 20


  • English footballer Raheem Sterling won the 2014 Golden Boy Award for his sensational performance with the Premier League club Liverpool and the England national team. The award was established in 2004 and is given to the best young player in Europe by Italian newspaper Tuttosport.
  • Scientists from England, Turkey and the Netherlands have discovered the oldest recorded stone tool ever to be found in Turkey, revealing that humans passed through the gateway from Asia to Europe much earlier than previously thought, approximately 1.2 million years ago. Their study was published in the journal Quaternary Science Reviews on 20 December 2014.[263]

December 21


December 22


December 23


  • Researchers from the University of Cambridge, in association with Boeing, have successfully tested the first aircraft to be powered by a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system, where an electric motor and petrol engine work together to drive the propeller. The demonstrator aircraft uses up to 30% less fuel than a comparable plane with a petrol-only engine. The aircraft is also able to recharge its batteries in flight, as revealed on 23 December 2014.[264]

December 24


December 25


December 26


December 27


December 28


December 29


December 30


December 31



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