Difference between revisions of "Belgium"

From Daily Positive
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(May 29)
(July 10)
 
(One intermediate revision by the same user not shown)
Line 772: Line 772:
  
 
----
 
----
 +
* Professor Yves Vanlandewyck from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven) in Belgium was named as the winner of the 2019 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Paralympic Scientific Award for his commitment to improve the quality of life for individuals with a disability since his early career as a physiotherapist in the 1980s, and later on as a wheelchair basketball player and coach.<ref>https://www.paralympic.org/news/vista-2019-yves-vanlandewijck-named-scientific-award-winner</ref>
 +
 
===='''July 11'''====
 
===='''July 11'''====
  

Latest revision as of 00:09, 12 August 2019

Kingdom of Belgium
Flag
Belgium LF.gif
Location  Europe
Capital  Brussels
Area  30,528 sq km
Population  11,570,762
"A stone at the bottom of a river does not worry about the rain"
(Proverb/Quote of the Week)

Daily Positive (D+) is a non-profit media initiative and it heavily relies on the generous support from everyone. Please consider a donation today. For more information send us email at info@dailypositive.org
Belgium Map.gif


January

January 1


January 2


January 3


January 4


January 5


January 6


January 7


January 8


January 9


January 10


January 11


January 12


  • Belgium's Jerome d'Ambrosio won the second Formula E race of the season after a thrilling battle in Marrakesh, Morocco on 12 January 2019.

January 13


  • A wild wolf has been found in the northern Belgian region of Flanders for the first time in more than a century, Belgian environmental group Landschap revealed on 13 January 2018.
  • Belgium had the fifth highest proportions (23.4%) of women in corporate boardrooms in 2014, according to a study of major economies published on 13 January 2015 by the New York based organization Catalyst Inc.[1]

January 14


January 15


January 16


January 17


January 18


January 19


January 20


  • A tree frog, named Frankixalus jerdonii, thought to be extinct for 137 years has been rediscovered in the jungles of north-eastern India by a team of international researchers including Belgian scientists. Their finding was described in a paper published in the journal PLOS ONE on 20 January 2016.[2]

January 21


January 22


January 23


January 24


January 25


January 26


January 27


January 28


January 29


  • Belgian tennis star Kim Clijsters won her fourth Grand Slam by taking her first Australian Open on January 29. 2011. Clijsters won the Australian Open with a 3-6, 6-3, 6-3 victory over China's Li Na.[3]

January 30


January 31



February

February 1


February 2


February 3


  • On 3 February 2012 a team of European scientists announced they have successfully transplanted a complete lower jaw that was created on a 3D printer into the face of an 83 year-old woman. This world’s first patient-specific implant was made from titanium by LayerWise, a specialized metal-parts manufacturer in Belgium, and transplanted into the woman in the Netherlands.[4]

February 4


February 5


February 6


February 7


  • The Constitution of Belgium was adopted in 1831. On 7 February 1831, the National Congress had completed its discussions and approved the Belgian constitution.[5]

February 8


February 9


February 10


February 11


February 12


February 13


  • A new species of whistling owl with a unique voice believed to exist nowhere else in the world has been identified on the island of Lombok in Indonesia, a Belgian researcher along with an international team reported on 13 February 2013 in the journal PLoS One.[6]

February 14


February 15


  • Belgium ranked top in the world on how effectively children can access the justice system to defend their rights, according to a research report released on 15 February 2016 by Children Rights International Network (CRIN).[7]

February 16


February 17


February 18


February 19


February 20


February 21


February 22


  • A team of international astronomers, including researchers from Belgium, has detected a record seven Earth-sized planets orbiting a single star Trappist-1, a low-mass, cool star located 40 light-years away from Earth. Three of them lie in the habitable zone and could harbour water, as revealed in the journal Nature on 22 February 2017.[8]

February 23


February 24


  • Belgians passport ranked fourth at the Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2016, allowing its citizens visa-free access to 174 countries.[9]

February 25


  • Archaeologists from Belgium, Austria and Germany have discovered a large, well-preserved school for Roman gladiators in Carnuntum, Austria. The discovery was reported on 25 February 2014 in the journal Antiquity, reveals intricate details about the daily routine of these famous warriors.[10]

February 26


February 27


February 28


February 29



March

March 1


  • Belgian passport was ranked as the world’s second most valuable by the Nomad Passport Index 2017, assessed based on visa-free travel, taxation, perception, dual citizenship and overall freedom.[11]

March 2


March 3


March 4


March 5


March 6


March 7


March 8


March 9


March 10


March 11


March 12


  • Belgian scientists were awarded 13 research grants by the European Research Council (ERC) on 12 March 2015 as part of the European Union Research and Innovation programme Horizon 2020.[12]
  • A team of international scientists, including researchers from Belgium, has discovered a vast reservoir of water under the Earth's mantle, 400-600 kilometers (250-375 miles) beneath the Earth’s surface. Their study, confirmed the finding based on the discovery of a rare mineral ringwoodite, was published in the journal Nature on 12 March 2014.[13]

March 13


March 14


March 15


March 16


March 17


March 18


March 19


March 20


  • Belgian mathematician Pierre Deligne won the 2013 Abel Prize in mathematics for his seminal contributions to algebraic geometry and for their transformative impact on number theory, representation theory and related fields.[14]

March 21


  • Scientists from Belgium, France and Italy have discovered the presence of metal in the ink of two Herculaneum papyrus fragments proving that metals were used in ink several centuries earlier than previously believed, as announced on 21 March 2016.[15]

March 22


March 23


March 24


March 25


March 26


March 27


March 28


March 29


March 30


March 31



April

April 1


April 2


April 3


  • Belgian photographer Nick Hannes won the 2018 ZEISS Photography Award “Seeing Beyond – Untold Stories” for his stunning photography series named Garden of Delight.

April 4


  • A Belgian and international team of palaeontologists has discovered a well-preserved skeleton of a four-legged whale ancestor in Playa Media Luna, in Peru's desert-like Pisco Basin. The 43 million years old skeleton was described in the journal Current Biology on 4 April 2019.[16]

April 5


April 6


April 7


April 8


April 9


April 10


April 11


April 12


April 13


April 14


April 15


April 16


April 17


April 18


April 19


  • Jacques Rogge from Belgium was awarded the prestigious Champions of the Earth Special Prize by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on 19 April 2007 for his role as the President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Mr. Jacques and the IOC were honored for introducing stringent environmental requirements for cities bidding to host Olympic Games.

April 20


  • Belgium hosted the 1920 Summer Olympic Games from April 20 to September 12, 1920 in Antwerp. Antwerp was awarded the Games in memory of victims of World War I.[17]

April 21


April 22


April 23


April 24


April 25


April 26


  • Belgium ranked ninth at the 2017 Press Freedom Index, ranking freedom of the media in a country, compiled by Reporters Without Borders.
  • Belgian footballer Eden Hazard was named the 2015 Professional Footballers’ Association (PFA) Player of the Year for his glittering form.[18]

April 27


  • Belgian footballer Eden Hazard was named the 2014 Professional Footballers’ Association (PFA) Men’s Young Player of the Year.

April 28


April 29


April 30



May

May 1


May 2


  • An international team led by astronomers at the University of Liege, Belgium has discovered three planets orbiting around a tiny star only 40 light-years away from Earth, according to a study published in the journal Nature on 2 May 2016. This discovery is a world first, because unlike all potentially habitable exoplanets detected so far, these new planets are well suited for a detailed study of their atmospheric compositions with the latest generation of telescopes, making the first search for traces of life around another star finally possible.[19]

May 3


  • Belgian singer Sandra Kim won the 1986 Eurovision Song Contest for the song J'aime La Vie. This was the first time that Belgium won the contest.[20]

May 4


May 5


  • On May 5, 1835 the first train ran on Belgium’s national railway from Brussels to Malines. It was the first railway in continental Europe.

May 6


  • Camille Gutt, a Belgian economist and politician, served as the International Monetary Fund (IMF)'s first Managing Director from May 6, 1946 to May 5, 1951. IMF is an organization of over 180 member countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world.[21]

May 7


May 8


May 9


  • Her Majesty Queen Mathilde of the Belgians was appointed as one of the UN Sustainable Development Goals Advocates on 9 May 2019.[22]

May 10


May 11


May 12


  • Belgian footballer Eden Hazard was voted the 2015 Footballer of the Year by the Football Writers’ Association. The Belgian international collected some 53% of members’ votes, making him a comfortable winner ahead of English striker Harry Kane.

May 13


May 14


May 15


May 16


May 17


May 18


May 19


May 20


May 21


  • The Gallo-Roman Museum in Tongeren, Belgium was awarded the prestigious European Museum of the Year Award (EMYA) 2011 on May 21, 2011 by the European Museum Forum (EMF).

May 22


May 23


May 24


May 25


May 26


May 27


May 28


May 29


  • Belgian astronomers and their international colleagues have found a rare exoplanet, named as NGTS-4b, as revealed on 29 May 2019. The planet is three times the size of Earth and 20% smaller than Neptune and the planet has its own atmosphere.
  • Belgian physicist François Englert was named co-winner of the 2013 Spain's Prince of Asturias Award for his contributions in Technical and Scientific research.[23]

May 30


May 31



June

June 1


June 2


June 3


June 4


  • After 55 days, Belgian polar explorer Dixie Dansercoer and Canadian Eric McNair-Landry succeeded in becoming the first polar explorers to fully circumnavigate the Greenland ice sheet. On 4 June 2014, on Day 56, they completed the expedition with a record total distance of 4,044.9km.[24]

June 5


June 6


June 7


June 8


  • The UN General Assembly on 8 June 2018 elected Belgium as a non-permanent member to the UN Security Council to serve during 2019-2020.[25]

June 9


  • Belgian journalist Philippe Leruth was elected as the President of the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), a global union federation of journalists' trade unions—the largest in the world, on 9 June 2016.[26]
  • A 27-year-old Belgian woman has become the first in the world to give birth to a healthy baby after having her fertility restored by a transplant of ovarian tissue that was removed and frozen when she was 13. The Belgian doctors detailed the transplant in the journal Human Reproduction on 9 June 2015.[27]

June 10


June 11


  • An international team including researchers from Belgium, France and Czech Republic have proposed a new model that shows an ocean lies only a few kilometers beneath Saturn's moon Enceladus’s icy surface. Their findings were published in Geophysical Research Letters on 11 June 2016.[28]
  • The genetic blueprint of the Eucalyptus grandis (flooded gum) has almost been sequenced by a team of international researchers, including scientists from Belgium. The five-year effort to analyze the 640 million base-pair genome was reported on 11 June 2014 in the journal Nature.[29]

June 12


June 13


June 14


June 15


June 16


June 17


  • Belgium ranked as the 14th most peaceful country in the world at the 2015 Global Peace Index published by Institute for Economics & Peace.

June 18


June 19


June 20


June 21


June 22


June 23


  • Belgium successfully launched 3 satellites on board the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C38 powered by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on 23 June 2017.[30]

June 24


June 25


June 26


  • A team of Belgian and international researchers has discovered genes responsible for early onset Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome. Their findings were published in the journal Brain on 26 June 2018.[31]

June 27


June 28


  • The Saxophone, a musical instrument, was invented by a Belgian musician-inventor Adolphe Sax and was patented by him on June 28, 1846. He designed the instrument in his Paris workshop.

June 29


June 30



July

July 1


  • The Mining Sites of Walonia in Belgium, some of the best preserved 19th and 20th century mining sites in Europe and surrounding buildings, are named as UNESCO World Heritage Site on 1 July 2012.[32]

July 2


  • Jean Rey, a Belgian lawyer and politician, served as President of the European Commission. He took the office on July 2, 1967. He was the second President of European Commission which is the executive body of the European Union-an economic and political union of European countries.

July 3


July 4


July 5


July 6


  • Belgian researchers and their international collaboration have discovered the first evidence of Neanderthal cannibalism in northern Europe. Their findings were published in the journal Scientific Reports on 6 July 2016 based on the analysis of Neanderthal human remains.[33]

July 7


July 8


July 9


July 10


  • Professor Yves Vanlandewyck from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven) in Belgium was named as the winner of the 2019 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Paralympic Scientific Award for his commitment to improve the quality of life for individuals with a disability since his early career as a physiotherapist in the 1980s, and later on as a wheelchair basketball player and coach.[34]

July 11


July 12


  • Belgian astronomers and a team of international researchers have discovered a star about the size of Saturn – the smallest ever measured. The newly-measured star, called EBLM J0555-57Ab, is located about six hundred light years away, as revealed on 12 July 2017.[35]

July 13


July 14


July 15


July 16


July 17


July 18


July 19


July 20


July 21


  • King Philippe I became Belgium's seventh monarch after the abdication of his father, Albert II, on 21 July 2013.

July 22


July 23


July 24


July 25


  • The first ever example of a plant-eating dinosaur with feathers and scales, named Kulindradromeus zabaikalicus, has been discovered in Russia. The finding could mean that feathered dinosaurs were widespread than previously thought, as Belgian scientists reported in the journal Science on 25 July 2014 in collaboration with a team of international researchers.[36]

July 26


July 27


July 28


July 29


July 30


July 31



August

August 1


August 2


August 3


  • Belgian cyclist Raf van Hulle won the inaugural France to China solar bike race organised by Sun Trip of France on 3 August 2018, who rode 12,000 kilometres (7,500 miles) from the French city of Lyon to the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou in just 45 days.[37]

August 4


August 5


August 6


  • Greg Van Avermaet of Belgium won the Men's Road Race Cycling gold at the 2016 Rio Olympic Games in Brazil.

August 7


August 8


August 9


August 10


August 11


August 12


August 13


  • Nafissatou Thiam of Belgium won the Women's Heptathlon gold at the 2016 Rio Olympic Games in Brazil.

August 14


  • Researchers from Belgium and an international team have set out the first comprehensive map of mutational processes behind the development of tumors - work that should in future lead to better ways to treat and prevent a wide range of cancers. Their study, published on 14 August 2013 in the journal Nature, discovered the genetic imprints and signatures left by DNA-damaging processes that lead to cancer.[38]

August 15


August 16


August 17


August 18


August 19


August 20


August 21


August 22


August 23


August 24


August 25


August 26


August 27


August 28


August 29


August 30


August 31



September

September 1


September 2


September 3


  • Belgium football team became the first European nation to clinch qualification for the 2018 FIFA World Cup on 3 September 2017 with two games to spare when they won 2-1 away to Greece.

September 4


September 5


September 6


September 7


September 8


September 9


  • Researchers from Belgium, Italy and Peru have found fossils of three dolphins in the Pisco-Ica desert in Peru. The dolphins, reported in the Journal Vertebrate Paleontology on 9 September 2014, not only belong to a new species but also related to endangered river dolphins living in the Indus and Ganges rivers in India today.[39]

September 10


  • Belgian director Fien Troch won the Orizzonti Award for Best Director for her film HOME at the 73rd Venice Film Festival on 10 September 2016.

September 11


  • Belgian tennis star Kim Clijsters won her third US Open Grand Slam Tennis Championships on 11 September 2010. Clijsters beat Russia's Vera Zvonareva 6-2, 6-1 in the final.[40]

September 12


September 13


September 14


September 15


September 16


September 17


September 18


September 19


September 20


September 21


September 22


September 23


  • Belgian professional road bicycle racer Philippe Gilbert won the world championship race in Valkenburg, Netherlands on 23 September 2012.

September 24


September 25


September 26


September 27


September 28


September 29


September 30


  • Belgium ranked as the 19th most competitive country in the world, according to a World Economic Forum report released on 30 September 2015. This report, provides insight into the drivers of a country’s productivity and prosperity, suggests Belgium has been nurturing innovation and talent.[41]


October

October 1


October 2


October 3


October 4


October 5


October 6


October 7


October 8


  • Scientists François Englert from the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium and Peter W. Higgs from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland jointly won the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.

October 9


October 10


October 11


  • Belgium clinched the fifth spot on the 2016 Girls’ Opportunity Index released by Save the Children, a global index that provides a snapshot of the situation of girls in respective countries according to their opportunity to control their own lives and to fulfill their potential.[42]
  • Belgium qualified for the 2014 FIFA footbal world cup - for the first time since 2002 - after a 2-1 win over Croatia on 11 October 2013.[43]

October 12


October 13


October 14


October 15


October 16


October 17


October 18


October 19


October 20


October 21


October 22


  • Scientists from Belgium and their international colleagues have unearthed fossils in Mongolia’s Gobi Desert that have allowed them for the first time to build a complete picture of one of the most unique dinosaurs, Deinocheirus mirificus. Their study was published on 22 October 2014 in the journal Nature.[44]

October 23


  • A joint international research team, including researchers from Belgium, has described a new songbird species — the Rote Leaf-Warbler Phylloscopus rotiensis named after Rote, Indonesia where it was found. The discovery was published in the journal Scientific Reports on 23 October 2018.[45]

October 24


  • Belgium’s Tim Wellens of Lotto Soudal won the overall title of the inaugural Gree UCI WorldTour Tour of Guangxi cycling race on 24 October 2017.

October 25


October 26


  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) moved its headquarters to Brussels from Paris in 1966. After lengthy arguments between the countries which wished for the Alliance Headquarters to remain in Paris and those which wished for it to be moved elsewhere, on 26 October 1966, the decision was taken to set up house in Brussels.[46]

October 27


October 28


October 29


October 30


October 31



November

November 1


November 2


November 3


November 4


November 5


November 6


November 7


November 8


November 9


November 10


November 11


November 12


November 13


November 14


November 15


November 16


November 17


November 18


November 19


November 20


November 21


November 22


November 23


November 24


November 25


November 26


November 27


November 28


November 29


November 30



December

December 1


December 2


  • Belgian heptathlon athlete Nafissatou Thiam was awarded the Female Rising Star title at the IAAF Athletics Awards 2016.[47]

December 3


December 4


December 5


December 6


  • A new species of semi-aquatic dinosaurs, nicknamed "Halszka" for Halszkaraptor escuilliei, that could kill prey on land and in water has been discovered by Belgians and a team of international scientists. Scientists made the discovery after studying a fossil which was found at Ukhaa Tolgod in southern Mongolia, as revealed in the journal Nature on 6 December 2017.[48]

December 7


December 8


December 9


December 10


  • Belgian lawyer Henri La Fontaine won The Nobel Peace Prize in 1913 for his work and aspiration toward fervent and total internationalism in the cause of peace.[49]
  • Auguste Marie François Beernaert, the 14th Prime Minister of Belgium, jointly won The Nobel Peace Prize in 1909 for his work and representation at the Permanent Court of Arbitration in order to resolve international dispute.[50]
  • The Nobel Peace Prize 1904 was awarded to Institute of International Law, founded in Belgium in 1873, in recognition of its contribution to promote international peace and study of international law.[51]

December 11


December 12


December 13


December 14


December 15


December 16


December 17


December 18


December 19


December 20


December 21


December 22


December 23


December 24


December 25


December 26


  • Researchers from Belgium, Brazil and Canada have described the first known hybrid bird species to be found in the Amazon rainforest, as published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS) on 26 December 2017. Through a series of genetic and other tests the team have revealed that the golden-crowned manakin -- first discovered in Brazil in 1957 but not seen again until 2002 - is in fact a hybrid species.[52]

December 27


  • Belgium was admitted as a member of the United Nations (UN) on 27 December 1945.[53]

December 28


December 29


December 30


December 31



References


  1. http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/2014-catalyst-census-women-board-directors
  2. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0145727
  3. http://www.australianopen.com/en_AU/news/articles/2011-01-30/201101301296308150794.html
  4. http://www.layerwise.com/LayerWise_worlds_first_AM_lower_jaw/PR_LayerWise_EN_Worlds_first_AM_lower_jaw.pdf
  5. http://www.belgium.be/en/about_belgium/country/history/belgium_from_1830/foundation_and_growth/first_unitary_constitution/
  6. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0053712
  7. https://www.crin.org/en/library/news-archive/press-release-first-global-ranking-access-justice-children-released
  8. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v542/n7642/full/nature21360.html
  9. https://www.henleyglobal.com/press-articles-details/visa-restrictions-index-2016/
  10. http://antiquity.ac.uk/ant/088/ant0880173.htm
  11. https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/nomadcapitalist/Nomad-Passport-Index-2017.pdf
  12. http://erc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/press_release/files/press_release_cog2014_results.pdf
  13. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v507/n7491/full/nature13080.html
  14. http://www.abelprize.no/c57681/binfil/download.php?tid=57777
  15. http://www.esrf.eu/home/news/general/content-news/general/metallic-ink-revealed-in-herculaneum-papyri.html
  16. https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(19)30220-9
  17. http://www.olympic.org/antwerp-1920-summer-olympics
  18. http://www.thepfa.com/news/2015/4/28/pfa-tv-pfa-awards
  19. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature17448.html
  20. http://www.eurovision.tv/page/history/by-year/contest?event=302
  21. http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/chron/mds.asp
  22. https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2019/05/new-sdg-advocates/
  23. http://www.fpa.es/en/news/peter-higgs-franois-englert-and-the-european-organization-for-nuclear-research-prince-of-asturias-award-for-technical-and-scientific-research.html
  24. http://www.greenlandice.be/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/P-140320-Press-release-PolarCircle-EN1.pdf
  25. https://news.un.org/en/story/2018/06/1011731
  26. http://www.ifj.org/nc/news-single-view/backpid/1/article/philippe-leruth-is-the-new-ifj-president/
  27. http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/06/09/humrep.dev128.abstract
  28. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL068634/abstract
  29. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13308.html
  30. http://www.isro.gov.in/update/23-jun-2017/pslv-c38-successfully-launches-31-satellites-single-flight
  31. https://academic.oup.com/brain/advance-article/doi/10.1093/brain/awy159/5043552
  32. http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/902
  33. http://www.nature.com/articles/srep29005
  34. https://www.paralympic.org/news/vista-2019-yves-vanlandewijck-named-scientific-award-winner
  35. http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/smallest-ever-star-discovered-by-astronomers
  36. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/345/6195/451
  37. https://www.thesuntrip.com/raf-van-hulle-join-guangzhou-canton/
  38. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12477.html
  39. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02724634.2014.858050
  40. http://www.usopen.org/en_US/players/overview/wta030458.html
  41. http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-report-2015-2016/
  42. http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/sites/default/files/images/Every_Last_Girl.pdf
  43. http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/preliminaries/news/newsid=2194374/index.html?intcmp=newsreader_news_caption
  44. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13874.html
  45. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-34101-7
  46. http://www.nato.int/docu/review/2007/issue2/english/history.html
  47. https://www.iaaf.org/news/press-release/athletics-awards-athlete-year-2016-bolt-ayana
  48. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature24679
  49. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1913/
  50. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1909/
  51. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1904/
  52. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/12/18/1717319115
  53. http://www.un.org/en/members/